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Table 2 Pooled estimates of T. gondii in cats by potential risk factors with meta-analysis

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats in mainland China

Factors related to T. gondii seroprevalence in cats No. of studies included No. of positive cats Total no. of cats Pooled seroprevalence (95% CI) Heterogeneity Meta-regression
Q (χ 2) Q-P I2(%) P-value OR (95% CI)
Overall   38 1,650 7,285 0.245 (0.201–0.290) 1,192.78 < 0.001 96.90   
Group Stray 12 400 1,261 0.409 (0.154–0.664) 2,020.66 < 0.001 99.50 0.001 3.00 (1.60–5.64)
  Pet 28 958 5,284 0.167 (0.124– 0.209) 676.81 < 0.001 96.00   Reference
Gender Male 14 261 1,333 0.212 (0.170–0.255) 42.46 < 0.001 71.70 0.743 1.07 (0.67–1.65)
  Female 14 225 1,196 0.200 (0.156–0.244) 45.8 < 0.001 73.80   Reference
Age Y > 3 12 318 1,115 0.316 (0.229–0.403) 118 < 0.001 90.70 0.018 2.77 (1.39–5.53)
  1 < Y ≤ 3 9 102 523 0.195 (0.127–0.263) 35.23 < 0.001 77.30   1. 54 (0.72–3.30)
  Y ≤ 1 12 335 1,249 0.174 (0.076–0.272) 238.78 < 0.001 95.40   Reference
Survey season Spring 3 87 335 0.282 (0.181–0.384) 8.47 0.014 76.40 0.911 1.15 (0.46–2.92)
  Summer 3 58 259 0.226 (0.175–0.276) 0.93 0.628 0   0.90 (0.34–2.36)
  Autumn 3 45 219 0.249 (0.099–0.398) 10.37 0.006 80.70   0.91 (0.34–2.43)
  Winter 3 43 176 0.247 (0.206–0.289) 1.06 0.589 0   Reference
Region Eastern 28 1,308 5,894 0.249 (0.197–0.302) 1,010.27 < 0.001 97.30 0.469 1.43 (0.54–3.79)
  Central 4 165 433 0.323 (0.161–0.484) 41.86 < 0.001 92.80   2.35 (0.58–9.45)
  Western 6 177 958 0.174 (0.105–0.243) 42.41 < 0.001 88.20   Reference
Serological test ELISA 22 895 4,556 0.207 (0.155–0.259) 619.24 < 0.001 96.60 0.109 0.29 (0.10–1.08)
  IHA 10 469 1,548 0.272 (0.157–0.388) 323.63 < 0.001 97.20   0.44 (0.13–1.50)
  MAT 4 181 681 0.432 (0.229,0.635) 99.79 < 0.001 97.00   Reference
  1. Abbreviations: 95% CI 95% confidence interval, ELISA Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, I2, the inconsistency index describing the percentage of variability due to heterogeneity rather than sampling error; IHA Indirect Haemagglutination test, MAT Modified Agglutination Test, Q Cochran’s Q-tests for heterogeneity, Q-P p-value of Q-tests
  2. The figures in bold are for a significant difference between/among subgroups with Meta-regression at the level of 0.05