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Table 3 Association of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides with community sanitation usage by household latrine use among children aged 6 to 15 years in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2011–2014

From: Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

  % Households with latrines in use per cluster Community sanitation by household sanitation Joint association   
Latrine in use No latrine in use Latrine in use Household sanitation by community sanitation
Infection +/− PR 95% CI +/− PR 95% CI PR 95% CI PRa 95% CI
Hookworm ≥ 80% 335/1315 1.15 0.68–1.96 23/93 1.22 0.80–1.87 1.19 0.81–1.75 0.98 0.77–1.24
60– < 80% 300/1316 1.03 0.61–1.73 90/448 0.91 0.60–1.38 1.06 0.72–1.56 1.16 0.97–1.40
40– < 60% 181/956 0.91 0.54–1.52 180/698 1.05 0.73–1.52 0.94 0.64–1.38 0.89 0.80–1.00
20– < 40% 81/514 0.82 0.48–1.38 149/891 0.89 0.60–1.32 0.84 0.56–1.28 0.95 0.78–1.16
P interaction = 0.15 < 20% 33/154 Ref   445/1610 Ref   1.03 0.76–1.41 1.03 0.76–1.41
T. trichiura ≥ 80% 123/1527 3.30 0.99–11.02 9/107 2.60 0.81–8.30 3.59 1.42–9.08 1.38 0.88–2.17
60– < 80% 93/1525 2.08 0.68–6.32 34/504 2.90 1.20–7.03 2.26 0.90–5.65 0.78 0.56–1.08
40– < 60% 52/1085 1.85 0.66–5.22 42/836 2.09 0.91–4.79 2.02 0.90–4.49 0.97 0.70–1.33
20– < 40% 13/583 0.78 0.25–2.38 28/1012 0.90 0.39–2.05 0.85 0.33–2.19 0.94 0.60–1.46
P interaction = 0.40 < 20% 7/180 Ref   48/2010 Ref   1.09 0.49–2.40 1.09 0.49–2.40
A. lumbricoides ≥ 80% 256/1394 1.68 0.93–3.06 30/86 3.92 2.11–7.27 2.36 1.45–3.85 0.60 0.44–0.81
60– < 80% 255/1363 1.31 0.74–2.34 89/449 2.03 1.24–3.33 1.84 1.14–2.98 0.91 0.76–1.08
40– < 60% 173/964 1.12 0.67–1.87 124/754 1.41 0.90–2.19 1.57 1.05–2.34 1.11 0.85–1.47
20– < 40% 99/497 1.13 0.65–1.96 166/874 1.50 1.00–2.25 1.58 1.06–2.35 1.06 0.80–1.39
pinteraction < 0.01 < 20% 28/159 Ref   188/1870 Ref   1.40 1.00–1.96 1.40 1.00–1.96
  1. Results weighted to account for unequal probabilities of selection. Models for A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris included data on 9818 children in 574 communities and adjusted for age; sex; anthelmintic treatment; bathing water source < 30 min; improved drinking water source; household owns: radio, television, mobile phone, iron roof, and has access to electricity; household education; elevation; soil moisture; community mean total of wealth indicators per household; population density; and survey round. Model for hookworm included data on 9812 children in 574 communities and adjusted for the same covariates in addition to shoe wearing.
  2. Abbreviations: +/−, Number with/without infection, PR prevalence ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. aPR, Prevalence ratio for household latrine in use versus household latrine not in use, within strata of community sanitation usage; pinteraction, Global Wald