Skip to main content

Table 8 Relative risk ratios for stunting, Manufahi District, Timor-Leste

From: Investigations into the association between soil-transmitted helminth infections, haemoglobin and child development indices in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste

  Moderate stunting (n = 347) Severe stunting (n = 245)
Parameter RR 95% CI ARR 95% CI P RR 95% CI ARR 95% CI P
Ascaris heavy-intensity 1.5 0.83–2.7 1.6 0.87–2.9 0.3007 1.8 0.79–4.0 2.0 0.87–4.4 0.2002
Ascaris moderate-intensity 1.1 0.65–1.8 1.0 0.61–1.7   1.0 0.50–2.0 0.93 0.46–1.9  
N. americanus heavy-intensitya 0.82 0.56–1.2 0.82 0.47–1.4 0.6140 0.73 0.43–1.2 0.91 0.41–2.0 0.8647
N. americanus moderate-intensitya 0.86 0.42–1.7 1.3 0.52–3.1   0.67 0.27–1.7 0.70 0.18–2.7  
Male sexb 2.0*** 1.4–2.8 2.8 1.7–4.7 < 0.0001 3.7*** 2.3–6.0 6.8 3.4–13.7 < 0.0001
N. americanus heavy-intensity infection in malesc    0.65 0.31–1.4 0.2540    0.31 0.11–0.85 0.0230
N. americanus moderate-intensity infection in malesc    0.43 0.10–1.8 0.2440    0.82 0.13–5.3 0.8340
Ancylostoma infection 0.26***d 0.11–0.65 0.27d 0.11–0.68 0.0050 0.33**d 0.11–0.99 0.37d 0.12–1.1 0.0780
Giardia infection 1.5 0.96–2.3     1.1 0.61–2.0    
Anaemia prevalence 1.2 0.68–2.0 1.1 0.65–2.0 0.6600 1.7 0.86–3.3 1.7 0.83–3.4 0.1470
Age group 6 to 11 years 0.92 0.63–1.4 1.1 0.71–1.6 0.7090 0.72 0.43–1.2 1.1 0.60–1.9 0.8620
Age group 12 to 17 years 1.4 0.86–2.3 1.7 0.98–2.8 0.0580 1.7 0.87–3.2 2.7 1.3–5.4 0.0060
Socioeconomic quintile 4 1.1 0.59–2.1 1.2 0.63–2.2 0.2415 0.91 0.34–2.5 1.1 0.39–2.9 0.0165
Socioeconomic quintile 3 1.4 0.69–2.7 1.4 0.70–2.8   1.2 0.41–3.4 1.3 0.45–3.8  
Socioeconomic quintile 2 1.3 0.65–2.4 1.2 0.64–2.3   1.5 0.55–4.0 1.5 0.57–4.2  
Socioeconomic quintile 1 (poorest) 2.3** 1.1–4.6 2.3 1.1–4.6   5.1*** 1.8–14.2 5.1 1.8–14.7  
  1. Notes: RRs in bold had univariable P < 0.2 and were entered in multivariable regression models; for correct interpretation of this table, if a variable was significant for moderate stunting but not severe stunting, it was still included, therefore on occasion moderate stunting adjusted RRs are significant when severe stunting adjusted RRs are not, and vice versa. Ascaris (categorical infection intensity), N. americanus (categorical infection intensity), Ancylostoma infection prevalence (binary), anaemia prevalence (binary), age group, sex and socioeconomic quintile were included in all multivariable regression models as exposure outcomes and covariates. A sex*N. americanus interaction is included in the model. Reference categories: no Ascaris infection, no N. americanus infection, female sex, no N. americanus infection in males (multivariable only), no Ancylostoma infection, no Giardia infection, no anaemia, age group 1–5 years, socioeconomic quintile 5 (wealthiest)
  2. Abbreviations: RR relative risk, ARR adjusted relative risk, CI confidence interval; P, Wald test P-value
  3. **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01 in univariable analysis
  4. aThe N. americanus main effect, being N. americanus infection intensity relative to no N. americanus infection in females (because females are the reference group)
  5. bThe male sex main effect, being the relative risk of male sex relative to female sex when there is no N. americanus infection (reference group)
  6. c N. americanus infection intensity in males is relative to no N. americanus infection in males (because males and moderate- or heavy-intensity N. americanus infection are not the reference groups)
  7. dTen observations or less in subgroup; result should be interpreted cautiously
  8. Normal growth (no stunting) is reference category, i.e. moderate and severe stunting need to be interpreted relative to this reference. Ascaris and N. americanus intensity infections defined according to following cut-points: Ascaris: heavy-intensity Cq ≤ 15.4, moderate-intensity Cq > 15.4 < 31, no infection Cq ≥ 31; N. americanus: heavy-intensity Cq ≤ 24.6, moderate-intensity Cq > 24.6 < 35, no infection Cq ≥ 35