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Table 2 Summary of Chrysops spp. immature and adult stages, and associated vector control measures

From: Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp.: perspectives on research, distribution, bionomics, and implications for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis

Stage Target Aim Activity Target area Category (after Gordon [28])
Larvae Environmental modification Reduce or kill pupae/ larval development and emergence Drainage of water, vegetation clearing to remove shade; flood Community and surrounds Defensive
Insecticide treatment Reduce or kill pupae/ larval development and emergence Apply insecticide to mud breeding sites Community and surrounds Aggressive
Adult Personal repellents Prevent biting by repelling with skin/ clothing impregnated insecticide Apply insecticide to skin/impregnate clothes of humans Humans Defensive
Household screens, curtains Prevent indoor biting by a physical barrier/ infrastructure Wired/meshed windows and doors of houses Houses Defensive
Environmental modification Reduce abundance by eliminating vegetation/ canopy resting sites Vegetation clearing around houses/village surrounds Community and surrounds Defensive
Insecticidal treatment To kill or knock down host seeking Spraying of foliage near oviposition sites Community and surrounds Aggressive
Indoor residual spraying Houses Aggressive
Traps alone, or with insecticide or wood fire Reduce abundance by capturing or killing Proximity to emerging larvae or host seeking Community and surrounds Aggressive