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Table 2 Cryptosporidium species and subtypes reported in humans from Africa

From: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Africa: current and future challenges

Country Patient group Cryptosporidium species (Prevalence in %)a gp60 subtypes Reference
Botswana Children with diarrhoea (< 5 years) C. parvum (50.0)   [41]
   C. hominis (41.0)   
Côte d’Ivoire Individuals with intestinal disorders C. meleagridis (75.0)   [106]
   C. parvum (16.7)   
   C. hominis (8.3)   
Democratic Republic of Congo HIV-infected adults C. hominis (80.0)   [28]
   C. parvum (20.0)   
Egypt Individuals with livestock in their household C. hominis (75.0)   [108]
   C. parvum (25.0) IIdA20G1  
Egypt Children with diarrhoea (≤ 10 years) C. hominis (60.5)   [26]
   C. parvum (38.3)   
Egypt Diarrhoeal patients C. hominis (97.0)   [131]
   C. parvum (3.0)   
Egypt Children with diarrhoea (1–14 years) C. parvum (82.0)   [290]
   C. hominis (12.0)   
   Mixed infections (6.0)   
Egypt Children with diarrhoea (< 10 years) C. hominis (60.5)   [95]
   C. parvum (38.3) IIaA15G1R1; IIaA15G2R1; IIdA20G1a  
   C. parvum + C. bovis (1.2)   
Egypt Diarrhoeal patients C. hominis (60.0)   [105]
   C. parvum (20.0)   
   C. hominis + C. parvum (20.0)   
Egypt Gastrointestinal symptomatic patients C. parvum (66.7)   [156]
   C. hominis (27.7)   
   C. meleagridis (5.6)   
Egypt Immunocompromised patients C. parvum (68.4)   [349]
   C. hominis (26.3)   
   C. parvum + C. hominis (5.3)   
Equatorial Guinea HIV-infected and immunocompetent patients C. parvum (52.9)   [150]
   C. hominis (44.1)   
   C. meleagridis (2.9)   
Equatorial Guinea HIV-seropositive patients C. parvum (54.8) IIcA5G3b; IIeA10G1 [152]
   C. hominis (50.0) IaA18R3b; IaA24R3; IbA13G3; IdA15; IdA18b  
   C. meleagridis (3.2)   
Ethiopia Diarrhoeal patients (14–71 years) C. parvum (95.1) IIaA15G2R1b; IIaA16G2R1; IIaA16G1R1 [82]
   C. hominis (2.4) IbA9G3  
   C. hominis + C. parvum (2.4)   
Ethiopia HIV/AIDS patients C. parvum (65.7) IIaA13G2R1; IIaA14G2R1; IIaA15G2R1b; IIaA16G2R1; IIaA16G3R1; IIaA17G2R1; IIaA18G2R1; IIaA19G1R; IIbA12; IIcA5G3a; IIdA17G1; IIdA19G1; IIdA22G1; IIdA24G1; IIeA12G1; If-like [23]
   C. hominis (17.9) IbA10G2; IdA20b; IdA24; IdA26; IeA11G3T3  
   C. viatorum (7.1)   
   C. felis (3.6)   
   C. meleagridis (2.1)   
   C. canis (1.4)   
   C. xiaoi (1.4)   
   C. hominis + C. parvum (0.7)   
Ethiopia Patients C. hominis (100) IbA9G3 [99]
Ethiopia Cryptosporidium-positive (7 months to 27 years) C. viatorum (90.0) XVaA3d [161]
Ethiopia Children (6–15 years) C. hominis (40.0)   [103]
   C. viatorum (40.0)   
   C. parvum (20.0)   
Ghana Children (≤ 5 years) C. parvum (100)   [142]
Ghana Children with and without gastrointestinal symptoms C. hominis (58.0) IaA15T1R3; IaA15G1R4; IaA17; IaA18R3; IaA19R3; IaA21R3; IaA22R3; IaA24R3; IbA13G3b; IdA15; IeA11G3T3 [98]
   C. parvum (42.1) IIcA5G3ab; IIcA5G3b; IIeA10G1; IIeA10G2  
Kenya HIV patients C. hominis (66.7)   [146]
   C. parvum (16.7)   
   C. meleagridis (16.7)   
Kenya Not stated C. hominis (C. parvum human) (90.0) Ib; Ieb [155]
   C. meleagridis (10.0)   
Kenya An HIV-infected adult with diarrhoea C. muris “rock hyrax”   [139]
Kenya HIV-positive and negative children and adults C. parvum human (69.7)   [147]
   C. parvum bovine (21.2)   
   C. meleagridis (3.0)   
   C. muris (3.0)   
Kenya Children (< 5 years) C. hominis (87.4)   [129]
   C. parvum (8.6)   
   C. canis (1.7)   
   C. felis (1.1)   
   C. muris (0.6)   
   C. meleagridis (0.6)   
Kenya Children (≤ 5 years) C. hominis (82.1)   [88]
   C. parvum (17.9)   
Kenya HIV/AIDS patients with and without diarrhoea (≥ 18 years) C. hominis (60.7) Ia; Ibb; Id; Ie; If [25]
   C. parvum (23.2) IIab; IIb; IIeb; IIc  
   C. canis (7.1)   
   C. meleagridis (5.3)   
   C. suis (3.6)   
Kenya HIV infected and uninfected children (5 years) C. hominis (82.8) IaA25R5; IaA27R3; IaA30R3; IaA7R1; IbA9G3; IbA9G3R2; IdA22; IdA24; IdA19; IdA25; IdA21; IdA20; IdA17G1; IdA18; IdA15G1; IdA23G1; IeA11G3T3R1b; IeA11G3T3; IfA19G1; IfA14G1; IfA12G1 [115]
   C. parvum (11.9) IIcA5G3R2  
   C. felis (2.6)   
   C. meleagridis (1.3)   
   C. parvum + C. hominis (0.7)   
Kenya Cryptosporidium spp.-positive female (25 years) C. viatorum XVaA3d [161]
Kenya Children (≤ 5 years) C. hominis (38.9)   [153]
   C. parvum (36.1)   
   C. meleagridis (16.7)   
   C. canis (5.6)   
   Unknown genotype (2.8)   
Madagascar Children with acute diarrhoeal disease (≤ 16 years) C. hominis (91.7) IaA22R3; IdA15G1b; IeA11G3T3 [350]
   C. parvum (8.3) IIcA5G3  
Madagascar Humans from rural south-eastern Madagascar C. suis (100)   [97]
Malawi HIV-positive and negative children C. hominis (63.6)   [147]
   C. parvum (36.4)   
Malawi Children HIV-positive and seronegative (≤ 30 months) C. hominis (95.3) Ia; Ib; Idb; Ie [351]
   C. parvum (4.7) IIc; IIe  
Malawi Diarrhoeal children (< 5 years) C. hominis (58.1)   [149]
   C. parvum (23.3)   
   C. parvum + C. hominis (2.3)   
   C. parvum/C. hominis (9.3)   
   C. meleagridis (4.7)   
   C. muris/C. andersoni (2.3)   
Nigeria HIV-infected (majority) and non-infected patients C. hominis (47.2) IaA14R3; IaA16R3; IaA24R3; IaA25R3; IbA13G3; IeA11T3G3b [83]
   C. parvum (44.4) IIcA5G3a; IIcA5G3h; New subtype family 1b; New subtype family 2  
   C. felis (5.6)   
   C. canis (2.8)   
Nigeria Children (6 months to 6 years) C. hominis (44.2) IaA18R2; IaA22R2; IaA24R2; IaA25R2; IaA28R2; IaA21R1; IbA10G2; IbA13G3b; IdA11; IdA17; IeA11G3T3b; Ih (Novel subtype); IhA14G1 [141]
   C. parvum (32.5) IIaA15G2R1; IIaA16G1R1; IIcA5G3ab; IIcA5G3b; IIiA11; IImA14G1  
   C. parvum plus C. hominis (5.2)   
   C. meleagridis (6.5)   
   C. cuniculus (C. rabbit genotype) (6.5)   
   C. ubiquitum (C. cervine genotype) (3.9)   
   C. canis (1.3)   
Nigeria Children (19.5–72 months) C. hominis (37.3)   [86]
   C. parvum (35.3)   
   C. parvum + C. hominis (7.8)   
   C. meleagridis (7.8)   
   C. cuniculus (C. rabbit genotype) (3.9)   
   C. ubiquitum (C. cervine genotype) (2.0)   
   C. canis (2.0)   
Nigeria Diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal children (1 to > 12 months) C. hominis (60.0) IaA24R3b; IbA13G3 [87]
   C. parvum (40.0) IIcA5G3k  
Nigeria Patients (2 months to 70 years) C. hominis (66.7) IaA23R3; IaA25R3 [166]
   C. parvum (33.3) IIeA10G1  
Nigeria HIV-infected patients (22–65 years) C. hominis (50.0) IeA11G3T3 [101]
   C. parvum (25.0) IIcA5G3k  
   C. meleagridis + C. hominis (25.0)   
São Tomé and Príncipe Children (2 months to 10 years) C. hominis (73.7) IeA11G3T3R1; IeA11G3T3; IaA27R3b; IaA23R3 [96]
   C. parvum (26.3) IIdA21G1a; IIdA26G1b; IIaA16G2R1; IIaA15G2R1  
South Africa Children (< 5 years) C. hominis (75.0) IbA12G3R2; IbA10G2; IeA11G3T3 [154]
   C. meleagridis (25.0)   
South Africa Children (< 5 years) C. hominis (76.0) IaA20R3; IaA25G1R3; IaA17R3; IbA9G3; IbA10G1; IdA20; IdA25IdA26; IdA24; IeA11G3T3b; IfA14G1; IfA12G1 [89]
   C. parvum (20.0) IIbA11; IIcA5G3bb; IIeA12G1  
   C. meleagridis (4.0) IIIdA4  
South Africa School children and hospital patients (≤ 88 years) C. hominis (81.8)   [77]
   C. parvum (18.2)   
South Africa HIV-infected children C. hominis (75.0) Ia; Ib; Id; Ie [352]
   C. parvum (25.0) IIc  
Tanzania People living in and around Gombe National Park C. hominis (100) IfA12G2 [102]
Tanzania Diarrhoeal children and controls (< 2 years old) C. hominis (84.7)   [72]
   C. parvum (7.6)   
   C. parvum or C. hominis (7.6)   
Tanzania HIV patients (18–65 years) C. hominis (71.4)   [162]
   C. parvum (28.6)   
Tunisia Children (< 5 years old) C. parvum (57.1) IIaA15G2R1b; IIdA16G1 [114]
   C. meleagridis (42.9)   
Tunisia Children with primary immune deficiencies C. hominis (40.0)   [151]
   C. parvum (20.0)   
   C. meleagridis (20.0)   
   C. hominis/C. meleagridis (20.0)   
Tunisia Immunocompetent and immunodeficiency children C. parvum (42.1)   [140]
   C. hominis (36.8)   
   C. meleagridis (21.1)   
Uganda Volunteers (1.9 months to 75 years) C. parvum (97.1)   [107]
   C. parvum or C. hominis or C. cuniculus (2.9)   
Uganda Children (2–84 months) C. hominis (74.4) Ia; Ib; Id; Ieb [148]
   C. parvum (18.3) IIcb; IIg; IIh; Iii  
   C. hominis + C. parvum (3.7)   
   C. meleagridis (3.7)   
Uganda Children with persistent diarrhoea, with and without HIV/AIDS (< 6 months) C. hominis (73.7)   [70]
   C. parvum (18.4)   
   C. parvum + C. hominis (3.9)   
   C. meleagridis (3.9)   
Uganda People who share habitats with free-ranging gorillas C. parvum (100)   [191]
Zambia Dairy farm workers and their household members C. parvum (80.0)   [118]
   C. hominis (20.0)   
  1. aPrevalence (percentage of species identified out of the total number of species genotyped per animal)
  2. bDominant gp60 subtype