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Table 3 Giardia duodenalis assemblages and subtypes reported in humans from Africa

From: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Africa: current and future challenges

Country Patient group Assemblage
(Prevalence in %)a
Subtype Reference
Algeria Children (8 and 13 years) A (37.5) AI; AIIb; Novel subtype [119]
   B (56.3) BIII; BIV; Novel subtypes  
   A + B (6.3)   
Central African Republic Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas Park employees A (100) AII [122]
Côte d’Ivoire Patients with intestinal disorders (2–63 years) A (19.6)   [106]
   B (76.8)   
   A + B (3.6)   
Côte d’Ivoire Patients with intestinal disorders (2–63 years) A (34.4)   [106]
   B (59.0)   
   A + B (6.6)   
Egypt Diarrhoeal patients (2–70 years) A (6.7) AI/AII [121]
   B (80.0) BIII; B/BIII; BIV; BIII/BIVb  
   A + B (6.7)   
   C (6.7)   
Egypt Diarrhoeal patients (All ages) A (18.8)   [132]
   B (81.2)   
Egypt Children (< 10 years) A (30.4) AII [80]
   B (52.2)   
   E (8.7)   
   A/B (4.3)   
   A/E (4.3)   
Egypt Children (5–12 years) A (77.1) AII [167]
   B (22.9) BIII  
Egypt Children with and without diarrhoea (1.5–12 years) E (100)   [169]
Egypt Diarrhoeal patients (4–65 years) A (75.6) AIb; AII [165]
   B (19.5)   
   A + B (5.0)   
Egypt Humans A (5.0)   [168]
   B (80.0)   
   E (15.0)   
Ethiopia Children (6–15 years) A (17.9) AIIb; AII/AIII [103]
   B (82.1) BIII; BIVb; BIII/BIV  
Ethiopia Children (≤ 14 years) A (22.9) AIIb [301]
   B (77.1) BIV; Novel subtypesb  
Ethiopia Hospital patients (0.5–80 years) B (100) BIII; BIVb [99]
Ethiopia Human isolates from urban and rural areas A (52.5)   [164]
   B (22.0)   
   A + F (11.9)   
   A + B (13.6)   
Ghana Children (≤ 5 years) B (100) BIII [305]
Guinea-Bissau Children (8.3 months to 7.5 years) A (11.5) AII [309]
   B (84.6)   
Kenya Diarrhoeal children (≤ 5 years) A (1.4) AII [313]
   B (88.9) BIII; BIV; BIII/BIVb  
   A + B (9.7)   
Morocco Urban and rural school children (5–15 years) A (18.1) AII [318]
   B (81.8) BIII; BIVb  
Nigeria Hospital patients (2 months to 70 years) A (100) AII [166]
Rwanda Largely asymptomatic children (< 5 years) A (13.5) AI; AIIb [22]
   B (85.9)   
   A + B (0.5)   
Rwanda Children (< 5 years) A (14.0)   [24]
   B (86.0)   
São Tomé and Príncipe Children (2 months to 10 years) A (55.5)   [96]
   B (45.5)   
Tanzania Diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal outpatients (≤ 71 years) A (6.7)   [340]
   B (88.8)   
   A + B (4.5)   
Tanzania Diarrhoeal children and controls (< 2 years) A (50.0)   [72]
   B (50.0)   
Tanzania Primary school children A (21.4) AII [123]
   B (78.6) BIII; BIVb  
Uganda Individuals living around Kibale National Park A AII [120]
   B BIII; BIV  
Uganda Apparently healthy children (0–12 years) A (14.7) AII [345]
   B (73.5)   
   A + B (11.8)   
Uganda Individuals sharing gorilla habitats A (100)   [163]
  1. aPrevalence (percentage of species identified out of the total number of species genotyped per animal)
  2. bDominant subtype