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Table 1 A summary of some repellent plant derivatives against anopheline mosquitoes

From: Prospects for malaria control through manipulation of mosquito larval habitats and olfactory-mediated behavioural responses using plant-derived compounds

Plant Major repellent compounds Mode of testing Repellency efficacy Study type Reference
Conyza newii Perillyl alcohol, perillaldehyde, geraniol Topical application 100% protection Laboratory study [55]
Mkilua fragrans Linalool, camphor, 4-isopropylbenzenemethanol, carvone, caryophyllene oxide Topical application RC50 9.21 × 10-5 mg cm-2 Laboratory study [125]
Endostemon tereticaulis Terpene-4-ol, fenchone, γ-terpinene, terpinolene Topical application RC50 1.52 × 10-5 mg cm-2 Laboratory study [125]
Ocimum fischeri Eugenol, terpinolene, β-myrcene Topical application RC50 0.67 × 10-5 mg cm-2 Laboratory study [125]
Ocimum forskolei Fenchone, camphor,α-pinene, β-myrcene Topical application RC50 1 × 10-5 mg cm-2 Laboratory study [125]
Plectranthus longipes Carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, terpene-4-ol, β-myrcene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinene Topical application RC50 1.93 × 10-5 mg cm-2 Laboratory study [125]
Croton pseudopulchellus Linalool, caryophyllene oxide,γ-terpinene, 1-methylpyrrole Topical application RC50 3.74 × 10-5 mg cm-2 Laboratory study [125]
Nepeta cataria Caryophyllene, nepetalactone Topical application RC50 0.081-0.091 mg cm-2 Laboratory study [105]
Lantana camara Caryophyllene Direct burning 27.22–43% protection Field study [132]
Thymus vulgaris α-terpinene, thymol, linalool, geraniol, carvacrol, p-cymene Topical application > 80% protection Laboratory study [141]
Azadirachta indica Azadirachtin, saponins Direct burning 25–94% protection Field study [132]
Corymbia citriodora p-menthane-3,8-diol, citronella, citronellol, geraniol, limonene, isopulegol, δ-pinene Topical application 48–100% protection Field study [139]
Plectranthus marrubioides Camphor, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene,aterpenene, fenchone, isocaryophyllene Topical application 100% protection Laboratory study [55]
Tarchonanthum camphoratus Camphene, α-pinene, α-fenchyl alcohol, 1,8-cineole, α-terpeneol, p-cymene Topical application 99% protection Laboratory study [55]
Tetradenia riparia Fenchone, limonene, 1,8-cineole Topical application 80% protection Laboratory study [55]
Lippia ukambensis Myrcene, linalool, α-pinene, eucalyptol, camphor, camphene, 1,8-cineole Topical application 84% protection Laboratory study [55]
Lippia javanica Allopurinol, camphor, limonene, verbenone, α-terpeneol, limonene oxide, cis-verbenol, linanool, α-terpeneol Topical application 90% protection Laboratory study [55]
Tagetes minuta Ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetones, ocimenones, piperitenone, 3,9-epoxy-p-metha-1,8(10)diene, β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, AR-turmerone Topical application > 80% protection Laboratory and semi-field studies [142]