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Table 2 Seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infections among migrant workers in Malaysia according to sex, age, nationality, employment sector, years of residence, accommodation and education

From: Socio-demographic determinants of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in migrant workers of Peninsular Malaysia

Factors IgG + IgM+ IgG+ IgM+
% (95% CI) P-valuea % (95% CI) P-value % (95% CI) P-value
Intrinsic factors
Sex Men (n = 375) 55.7 (50.5–60.8) 0.469 4.8 (2.9–7.5) 0.610 3.7 (2.1–6.2) 0.975
  Women (n = 109) 59.6 (49.8–68.9) 3.7 (1.0–9.1) 3.7 (1.0–9.1)
Age class (years)* < 25 (n = 142) 59.2 (50.6–67.3) 0.045 3.5 (1.2–8.0) 0.732 3.5 (1.2–8.0) 0.853
25–34 (n = 183) 51.4 (43.9–58.8) 5.5 (2.7–9.8) 3.8 (1.6–7.7)
35–44 (n = 111) 54.1 (44.3–63.6) 4.5 (1.5–10.2) 3.6 (1.0–9.0)
45–54 (n = 35) 74.3 (56.7–87.5) 5.7 (0.7–19.2) 5.7 (0.7–19.2)
> 55 (n = 13) 76.9 (46.2–95.0) 0.0 (0.0–24.7) 0.0 (0.0–24.7)
Country of nationality* Indonesia (n = 247) 58.3 (51.9–64.5) < 0.001 5.3 (2.8–8.8) 0.448 5.3 (2.8–8.8) 0.325
Bangladesh (n = 72) 44.4 (32.7–56.6) 2.8 (0.3–9.7) 1.4 (0.0–7.5)
Myanmar (n = 14) 28.6 (8.4–58.1) 0.0 (0.0–23.2) 0.0 (0.0–23.2)
India (n = 52) 38.5 (25.3–53.0) 1.9 (0.0–10.3) 1.9 (0.0–10.3)
Nepal (n = 99) 74.7 (65.0–82.9) 6.1 (2.3–12.7) 3.0 (0.6–8.6)
Extrinsic factors
Employment sector* Construction (n = 68) 61.8 (49.2–73.3) < 0.001 5.9 (1.6–14.4) 0.417 5.9 (1.6–14.4) 0.400
Manufacturing (n = 93) 74.2 (64.1–82.7) 4.3 (1.2–10.6) 2.2 (0.3–7.6)
Plantation (n = 102) 44.1 (34.3–54.3) 4.9 (1.6–11.1) 3.9 (1.1–9.7)
Food service (n = 115) 50.4 (41.0–59.9) 1.7 (0.2–6.1) 1.7 (0.2–6.1)
Domestic (n = 106) 56.6 (46.6–66.2) 6.6 (2.7–13.1) 5.7 (2.1–11.9)
Years of residence* < than 1 year (n = 180) 65.0 (57.6–71.9) 0.004 6.7 (3.5–11.4) 0.091 5.6 (2.7–10.0) 0.107
> than 1 year (n = 304) 51.6 (45.9–57.4) 3.3 (1.6–6.0) 2.6 (1.1–5.1)  
Accommodation Own/rent house (n = 133) 57.1 (48.3–65.7) 0.638 5.3 (2.1–10.5) 0.447 4.5 (1.7–9.6) 0.236
Construction site (n = 53) 62.3 (47.9–75.2) 7.5 (2.1–18.2) 7.5 (2.1–18.2)
Hostel by employer (n = 298) 55.4 (49.5–61.1) 3.7 (1.9–6.5) 2.7 (1.2–5.2)  
Education Primary (n = 228) 54.4 (47.7–61.0) 0.114 4.8 (2.4–8.5) 0.674 3.9 (1.8–7.4) 0.572
Secondary (n = 201) 62.7 (55.6–69.4) 4.0 (1.7–7.7) 3.0 (1.1–6.4)
University (n = 10) 50.0 (18.7–81.3) 0.0 (0.0–30.8) 0.0 (0.0–30.8)  
No formal schooling (n = 45) 42.2 (27.7–57.8) 6.7 (1.4–18.3) 6.7 (1.4–18.3)  
  1. *P < 0.01
  2. a P-values are based on each factor being fitted alone with presence/absence of antibodies and reflect the statistical significance of the variable in improving the fit of the model to the data. The results of the multifactorial models are described in the text
  3. Abbreviation: CI confidence interval