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Fig. 1 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 1

From: Light manipulation of mosquito behaviour: acute and sustained photic suppression of biting activity in the Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito

Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the biting behavioural assays. a Standard photoschedule that the An. gambiae (s.s.) mosquitoes were reared on and experimented under. Zeitgeber time (ZT) 12 is the time of lights off, and ZT24/0 occurs at the end of the 1 h dawn transition. b Method for testing the immediate (acute) and sustained (chronic) effects of a single light pulse presented during the onset of the night on biting activity. The dotted line represents a single, one-time light pulse for all experimental mosquitoes. c Method for testing the effects of dark acclimation on blood-feeding behaviour during the late daytime and the dusk transition. d Method for assaying the immediate acute inhibition of biting behaviour by a single light pulse tested at different times throughout the night. e Method for testing the sustained (chronic) inhibition of biting behaviour 2 h following light treatment and with multiple light pulses delivered throughout the night. Each batch of mosquitoes was assayed for blood-feeding in the dark immediately prior to the next time series batch being exposed to light. The dotted line represents all experimental mosquitoes were light-pulsed repeatedly. White-black bar represents the environmental LD cycle. A grey section (e) represents subjective day when the LD cycle ends in the experiment, and there is a transition to constant darkness. Arrows directly above the light-dark bar pointing down indicate the time of blood meal (Investigator’s arm) being offered (bcde); arrows directly below the light-dark bar pointing up to indicate the time specific presentation of white light (b, d, e). A black box below the light-dark bar indicates the administration of a pretreatment of darkness during the light phase of the LD cycle (c)

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