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Fig. 4 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 4

From: Abscisic acid induces a transient shift in signaling that enhances NF-κB-mediated parasite killing in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi without reducing lifespan or fecundity

Fig. 4

ABA increased TAK1 phosphorylation upstream of NF-κB-dependent gene expression. a Levels of TAK1 phosphorylation in ABA-supplemented parasite-fed mosquito midguts are shown as fold changes compared to controls. Each dot represents one replicate of 15 pooled midguts. b Fold changes in levels of TAK1 phosphorylation in the midguts of ABA-supplemented, parasite-fed mosquitoes at 30 min post-infection, normalized to non-supplemented, parasite-fed controls, treated with a control or TAK1-targeted morpholino (MO). c Fold changes in expression of nos mRNA in ABA-supplemented parasite-fed mosquito midguts (6 h post-infection) fed either control- or TAK1-morpholinos (n = 4). d Fold change in expression levels of apl1, lrim, tep1, and defensin in ABA-supplemented P. falciparum-fed mosquitoes normalized to non-supplemented, parasite fed controls, fed either a control- or TAK1-morpholino. Each dot represents one replicate of 10 pooled midguts. Data were normalized to their respective morpholino controls. Phosphorylated TAK1 levels were analyzed by Student’s t-test. nos expression was analyzed by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. apl1, lrim, tep1 and defensin levels were analyzed by Student’s t-test. *P < 0.05

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