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Table 3 Comparison with the prevalence of pfcrt K76T from previous studies

From: Return of chloroquine sensitivity to Africa? Surveillance of African Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance through malaria imported to China

Country Time of CQ withdrawal [2] Mutation rate (%) Sample size Year Reference P-value (χ 2; df)
Angola 2006 97.0 102 2007 [28] P < 0.001 (113.6; 3)
63.5 430 2010 [28]
47.6 42 2011–2014 This study
25.7 101 2012–2015 [29]
Congo 2006 97.0 83 2005 [31] P < 0.001 (29.8; 3)
92.0 51 2009–2010 [30]
80 20 2011–2014 This study
52.2 23 2012–2015 [29]
Equatorial Guinea 2004 72.0 297 2005 [33] P < 0.001 (274.0; 4)
30 244 2013 [34]
98.7 151 2013–2014 [32]
31.9 47 2011–2014 This study
14.7 75 2012–2015 [29]
Ghana 2004 59.3 27 2004–2006 [37] P = 0.001 (19.8; 4)
47.8 178 2007–2008 [35]
48.3 60 2010 [36]
15.0 20 2011–2014 This study
13.0 23 2012–2015 [29]
Nigeria 2005 88.0 116 2004–2005 [38] P < 0.001 (99.0; 3)
95.8 119 2007–2008 [39]
46.9 32 2011–2014 This study
41.9 74 2012–2015 [29]
  1. Note: Partial studies were selected for comparison, and mixed infections were considered as mutant. Mutation rates among different years were compared, and the results indicate significant changes over time (P < 0.05)