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Table 2 Effect of scabies mites or mite extracts on key cytokines and molecules from cultured cells in vitro and in vivo

From: Host immune responses to the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, in humans

Cell type(s) Cytokines upregulated Cytokines downregulated Reference
Cultured cells treated with mite extracts
 Human skin equivalents (HSE) CTACK, IL 1α, IL 1β, IL 1Rα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-23A, GM-CSF, M-CSF Not reported [18, 83]
 Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-D) ICAM-1 IL-6, IL-8, VCAM-1 [114, 122]
 Human keratinocytes, fibroblasts IL-6, CTACK, TGF α, CXCL1, G-CSF IL-8, GM-CSF [84, 113]
 Dendritic cells TNF-α IL-6, IL-8 [60]
In vivo studies: humans
 PBMCs IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL 1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 IL-10 [35, 46, 57]
 Serum IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ IL-6 [47]
 Skin biopsies (crusted scabies) IL-1β, TGF-β IFN-γ, IL-10? [23]
In vivo studies: other animals
 Porcine PBMCs IL-17, IFN-γ Not reported [88]
 Spleen (from exposed/vaccinated mice) G-CSF, IL-2, IL-13 ICAM-1, ICAM-2, L-selectin, M-CSF, TNF α, TGF β [112]
 Canine PBMCs IL-4, IL-5, TGF-β TNF-α [123]
 Pig skin biopsies IL-13, IL-17, IL-23, IL-4, IL-2, TGF-β Not reported [46]