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Table 2 Predictors pertaining to study characteristics included in the meta-analyses of all outcomes

From: Meta-analyses of the proportion of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vectors and vertebrate hosts

Variable Description Categories
Species Mosquito/vertebrate host species or genera Vectors: several species (n = 24); Hosts: pigs, birds, sylvatic mammals, cattle, sheep and goats, cats and dogs, chickens, ducks, rabbits, herons, horses and donkeys, wild pigs, bats, rats, reptiles and amphibians
Season Trimester of the year during which the study was conducted Trimester 1 (December-February), trimester 2 (March-May), trimester 3 (June-August), trimester 4 (September-November), all year-round
Diagnostic method Diagnostic method used for detecting JEV Vectors: virus isolation, antigen-capture enzyme assays, PCRa; Hosts: EIA or immunochromatography, hemagglutination inhibition tests, neutralization testsb
Capture method Capture method used for capturing mosquitoes Manual passive, manual active, mechanical visual, mechanical olfactoryc
Mosquitoes/pool Number of mosquitoes included in each pool
Country category Country category where the study was conducted Vectors: Australasia, India, China and Taiwan, Japan and South Korea, Thailandd; Hosts: North and Southe
Age Age of vertebrate host Young and adult
  1. aVirus isolation may use cell culture techniques or insect bioassays and virus identification by serotype identification with antibodies, such as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA)
  2. Antigen-capture enzyme assays include the detection of antigens by enzyme immunoassays (EIA), alone or in combination with virus isolation. PCR or RT-PCR was used alone or in combination with antigen-capture enzyme assays, virus isolation, or both
  3. bEIA or immunochromatography includes the detection of antibodies by EIA or immunochromatography only, or in combination with other methods, such as hemagglutination inhibition tests (HAI), virus isolation, and neutralization tests. Hemagglutination inhibition tests (HAI) may have been used alone or in combination with virus isolation and neutralization tests. Neutralization tests, including PRNT, may have been used alone or in combination with virus isolation. Virus isolation only is also included in this category
  4. cManual passive method includes aspirations; manual active uses sweep or drop nets; mechanical visual uses visual attractants, such as UV (black light) or white light; mechanical olfactory uses olfactory attractants, such as octanol
  5. dAustralasia includes Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and Saipan (Mariana islands); “India” includes India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh; “Thailand” includes Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam
  6. eNorth includes the following countries: China, Japan, and South Korea. South includes the following countries: Australia, Guam (USA), India, Myanmar, Nepal, Saipan (USA), Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam [26]