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Table 4 Subgroup meta-analysisa of studies reporting the proportion of JEV infection in vertebrate hosts grouped by host species. Each effect size (computed for the group of studies reporting proportion of JEV in each vertebrate host species) represents pooled estimates (effect size) of the outcome for each host species, and the overall represents the overall pooled estimate across all vertebrate host species

From: Meta-analyses of the proportion of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vectors and vertebrate hosts

Vertebrate host species Effect size (logit) 95% CI (logit) Proportion of JEV infectionb 95% CI (proportion) % weight
Pigs -0.36 -0.64– -0.08 0.41 0.35–0.48 59.11
Birds -2.05 -3.25– -0.84 0.11 0.04–0.30 6.12
Sylvatic mammals -0.95 -1.90–0.01 0.28 0.13–0.50 4.37
Cattle -0.25 -1.17–0.67 0.44 0.24–0.66 3.16
Sheep and goats -0.77 -1.01– -0.53 0.32 0.27–0.37 2.91
Cats and dogs 0.58 -0.40–1.56 0.64 0.40–0.83 2.38
Chickens -2.47 -2.94– -2.01 0.08 0.05–0.12 2.67
Ducks -0.67 -2.60–1.26 0.34 0.07–0.78 2.02
Herons -0.94 -1.25– -0.63 0.28 0.22–0.35 13.97
Horses and donkeys 0.62 -0.24–1.49 0.65 0.44–0.82 0.95
Wild pigs 0.12 -2.93–3.17 0.53 0.05–0.96 0.96
Bats -3.26 -4.67– -1.85 0.04 0.01–0.14 0.45
Reptiles and amphibians -1.20 -2.12– -0.29 0.23 0.11–0.43 0.92
Overall -0.62 -0.83– -0.41 0.35 0.30–0.40 100
  1. a Random-effects meta-analysis using the method of DerSimonian & Laird [24] to estimate the variance between studies, using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) algorithm. I 2 range: 60.00% (P-value < 0.001) (chickens) - 96.8% (P-value = 0.64) (pigs)
  2. b p = (e logit/ (e logit+1))