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Table 3 Bivariate and multivariate factors related to C. felis infestation prevalence in dogs

From: Modelling the current distribution and predicted spread of the flea species Ctenocephalides felis infesting outdoor dogs in Spain

  Bivariate OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Corine, level 1   
 Artificial surfaces Ref Ref
 Agricultural areas 0.53 (0.38–0.73)*** 0.44 (0.24–0.79)**
 Forest and semi natural areas 0.12 (0.07–0.19)*** 0.06 (0.03–0.13)***
Spring rainfall 0.76 (0.66–0.87)***
Summer rainfall 0.65 (0.52–0.8)*** 0.55 (0.36–0.83)**
Autumm rainfall 0.77 (0.68–0.88)***
Winter rainfall 0.89 (0.82–0.98)*
Spring rainfall 0.76 (0.66–0.87)***
Summer rainfall 1.17 (1.1–1.25)*** 1.48 (1.27–1.72)***
Autumm temperature 1.15 (1.11–1.2)*** 0.62 (0.51–0.75)***
Winter temperature 0.89 (0.82–0.98)*
Bioclimatic belt   
 Bioclimatic zone G Ref Ref
 Bioclimatic zones C, D 1.03 (0.63–1.66) 0.14 (0.05–0.36)***
 Bioclimatic zone H 0.93 (0.62–1.38) 0.13 (0.05–0.31)***
 Bioclimatic zone I 2.25 (1.38–3.68)*** 0.96 (0.35–2.64)
 Bioclimatic zone O 3.42 (2.11–5.53)*** 5.63 (1.50–21.14)*
Elevation in km 0.49 (0.29–0.81)**
Aspect 0.83 (0.73–0.94)**
Slope 1.02 (0.96–1.09)
Distance to UrS 0.99 (0.99–1) 1.01 (1.00–1.02)***
NDVI 47.24 (13.12–170.10)*** 0.10 (0.01–1.15)
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref Reference category, UrS urban settlement, NDVI normalized difference vegetation index
  2. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001