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Table 1 Relationship between the density of Ixodes ricinus, by life stage, and deer activity, across 17 plots that had at least one species of deer

From: Deer presence rather than abundance determines the population density of the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus, in Dutch forests

Model Deer species Larva Nymph Adult
β P β P β P
1 Fallow deer 0.27 0.64 0.15 0.63 0.21 0.58
Red deer -0.27 0.66 0.49 0.17 0.64 0.14
Roe deer -0.21 0.74 0.27 0.46 0.15 0.75
2 All deer 0.42 0.35 -0.02 0.95 0.03 0.93
  1. Correlation coefficient (β) and P-value for correlations between I. ricinus density of the three different life stages and availability of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; model 1) or all deer species combined (model 2) as obtained with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial distribution and log link with a random intercept per vegetation type