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Table 1 Univariable and multivariable analysis of characteristics of pregnant women with T. vaginalis attending antenatal care clinic at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya

From: Molecular typing of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by actin gene sequence analysis and carriage of T. vaginalis viruses

Variable N = 349 Percentage with T. vaginalis Crude OR (95% CI) P-value
Demographic characteristics
 Age group (years)
  18–24 132 6.8 1.1 (0.4–2.5) 0.894
   ≥ 25 217 6.5   
Religion
Christian 248 5.7   
 Muslim 54 5.7 1.0 (0.3–3.5) 0.979
 Other/None 47 12.8 2.4 (0.9–6.7) 0.083a
Education
 None 63 7.9   
 Primary 200 7.0 0.9 (0.3–2.5) 0.802
 Secondary/Tertiary 86 4.7 0.6 (0.1–2.1) 0.411
Marital status
 Single 25 4.0   
 Married 224 6.8 1.7 (0.2–13.5) 0.593
Residency
 Living with partner 255 5.5   
 Not living with a partner 94 9.6 1.8 (0.8–4.4) 0.178
Employment status
 Employed/self-employed 199 5.0   
 Unemployed 150 8.7 1.8 (0.8–4.2) 0.180
Parity
 0 94 6.4 1.1 (0.3–3.5) 0.843
 1–2 133 7.5 1.3 (0.5–3.6) 0.570
 3+ 122 5.7   
Gestational age (weeks)c
 14–25 183 5.5   
  ≥ 26 165 7.9 1.5 (0.6–3.4) 0.382
Hygiene characteristics
 Toilet type
  Flushing toilet 117 7.7   
  Pit latrine 197 5.1 0.6 (0.3–1.6) 0.350
  Bush/Other 35 11.4 1.5 (0.4–5.4) 0.491
Mode of cleaning after visiting the toilet
 Tissue paper/Other solid materials 106 2.8   
 Water 243 8.2 3.1 (0.9–10.5) 0.074a
Behavioral characteristics
 Sexual debut age (years)
   ≤ 17 106 8.5 1.8 (0.7–4.7) 0.231
   ≥ 18 183 4.9   
  Do not know/No response 60 6.7 1.5 (0.4–5.0) 0.523
Number of lifetime sex partnersc
 1 158 3.8   
 2+ 189 9.0 2.5 (1.0–6.5) 0.060a
Polygamous partner
 No 303 6.9 1.6 (0.4–7.2) 0.515
 Yes 46 4.4   
Alcohol consumption ever
 No 262 6.5 0.9 (0.4–2.5) 0.894
 Yes 87 6.9   
Tobacco use
 No 332 6.6 1.1 (0.1–8.9) 0.904
 Yes 17 5.9   
Other drugs/substance use ever
 No 332 6.6 1.1 (0.1–8.9) 0.904
 Yes 17 5.9   
Sexually transmitted infections/reproductive tract infections
 HIV
  Negative 324 6.2   
  Positive 25 12.0 2.1 (0.6–7.5) 0.268
Bacterial vaginosisd
 Negative 293 6.5   
 Positive 53 7.6 1.1 (0.4–3.6) 0.775
Clinical signs and symptoms of STI
 Previous history of vaginal discharge
 No 122 5.6   
 Yes 227 7.1 1.2 (0.5–3.1) 0.638
Previous syndromic treatment of genital infection
 No 229 6.6   
 Yes 120 6.7 1.0 (0.4–2.5) 0.967
Current vaginal discharge (self-reported)c
 No 96 3.1   
 Yes 252 7.9 2.7 (0.8–9.2) 0.119
Abnormal vaginal discharge foul smell/color (observed)c
 No 271 5.9   
 Yes 77 9.1 1.6 (0.6–4.0) 0.324
Dysuriac
 No 263 6.1   
 Yes 85 8.2 1.4 (0.5–3.5) 0.489
Dyspareuniac
 No 245 4.9   
 Yes 103 10.7 2.3 (1.0–5.4) 0.053
Vaginal itchingc
 No 231 6.5   
 Yes 117 6.8 1.1 (0.4–2.6) 0.903
Lower abdominal painc
 No 169 8.3   
 Yes 179 5.0 0.6 (0.2–1.4) 0.226
Genital wartsc
 No 341 6.2   
 Yes 7 28.6 6.1 (1.1–33.3) 0.037a
Genital ulcer (observed)c
 No 338 5.6   
 Yes 10 40.0 11.2 (2.9–43.1) 0.001b
Vaginitisc
 No 334 6.6   
 Yes 14 7.1 1.1 (0.1–8.7) 0.935
Symptomaticc
 No 145 6.9   
 Yes 203 6.4 0.9 (0.4–2.2) 0.855
  1. aSignificant in univariable analysis
  2. bSignificant on multivariable association; symptomatic (any or a combination of the three symptoms, i.e. genital ulcer, lower abdominal pain or abnormal vaginal discharge)
  3. cMissing data/some participants did not respond to this question(s)
  4. dBacterial vaginosis results for three participants were not available due to poor slides