45 ticks (n = 9) significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358) were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub-) urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite."/>
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Fig. 2 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 2

From: Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

Fig. 2

Number of ticks positive for different tick-borne pathogens. The overall height of the bars represents the percentage of infected ticks tested positive for the respective pathogen. The proportions at which the pathogens were detected alone or in combination with one or two others are shown in light gray, dark gray, and black, respectively. Abbreviations: B.g., B. garinii; B.a., B. afzelii; B.b.(s.s.), B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto); B.va., B. valaisiana; B.m., B. miyamotoi; R.h., R. helvetica; R.m., R. monacensis; A.p., A. phagocytophilum; B.ve., B. venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1); N.m., "Candidatus N. mikurensis"; B.b.(s.l.), two (or more) different B. burgdorferi (sensu lato) species. R. helvetica was significantly more often detected alone than in association with another pathogen (GLM with developmental stage as a dependent variable; Chi-square test with Bonferroni correction, P = 0.023)

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