45 ticks (n = 9) significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358) were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub-) urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite."/>
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Fig. 3 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 3

From: Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

Fig. 3

Correlation-plot showing the pathogen combinations observed in urban I. ricinus ticks in Switzerland. The more frequent a pathogen combination, the bigger the respective circle in the plot. In addition, the absolute counts of ticks with the particular pathogen combination are given in numbers. Abbreviations: B.g., B. garinii; B.a., B. afzelii; B.b.(s.s.), B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto); B.va., B. valaisiana; B.m., B. miyamotoi; R.h., R. helvetica; R.m., R. monacensis; A.p., A. phagocytophilum; B.ve., B. venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1); N.m., "Candidatus N. mikurensis"; B.b.(s.l.), two (or more) different B. burgdorferi (sensu lato) species, not distinguishable. Other combinations of three different pathogens are not shown in this plot; these were 1× B. afzelii + R. helvetica + A. phagocytophilum and 1× B. afzelii + B. venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1) + "Ca. N. mikurensis"

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