45 ticks (n = 9) significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358) were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub-) urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite."/>
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Fig. 4 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 4

From: Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

Fig. 4

NGS results for 10 I. ricinus tick samples. Two samples positive in one or more pathogen screening PCR (a) and 8 samples negative in all screening PCRs (b) were analyzed. Whole genome amplified samples were sequenced on an Ion S5™, Kraken was used for taxonomic profiling of trimmed reads, and species with low read support were filtered out. Species pathogenic for humans, i.e. R. helvetica (R.h.), A. phagocytophilum (A.p.), B. afzelii (B.a.), as well as the tick endosymbiont "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii" (C.M.m.), are represented individually. The remaining species are grouped in Pseudomonas spp. (P.spp.), other residents of soil and water, commensals, human microbiota, and plant associated bacteria. The bars indicate the percentages of reads assigned to the respective species or groups in a logarithmic scale

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