45 ticks (n = 9) significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358) were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub-) urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite."/>
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Table 3 Overview of ticks collected at the different collection sites

From: Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

Collection sites Number of I. ricinus ticks collecteda Non-I. ricinus
City Name Description Total Larvae Nymphs Adult males Adult females
Basel Friedhof Hörnli Cemetery 246 1 230 6 9
Basel Margrethenpark Urban park 83 66 10 7
Bern Allmend Urban park 123 9 53 61
Bern Gaswerkareal Urban park
Bern Monbijoupark Urban park
Chur Schwimmbad obere Au Open air swimming pool
Chur Spielplatz Böschengut Urban park
Geneva Bois de la Bâtie Urban forest
Geneva Bois des frères Suburban forest 135 1 98 18 18
Geneva Parc des Croppettes Urban park 2 2
Lausanne Parc de la Gottéttaz Urban forest
Lausanne Parc de l’Hermitage Urban park 103 1 42 32 28
Lugano Gentilino Pambio Urban forest
Lugano Parco San Michele Urban park 1 1
Lugano Parco Del Tassino Urban park
Lugano Via degli Abeti Urban forest
Luzern Allmend Urban park 2 2
Luzern Friedhof Friedental Cemetery
Luzern Tribschenhorn Urban park, lake side
Murten Lindensaal Urban park
Murten Stadtgraben Urban park
Neuchâtel Jardin du Prince Urban forest 49 1 44 4 1 I. hexagonus female
Neuchâtel Les Cadolles Suburban forest 115 115
Sion Place de la Planta Urban park
Sion Place du Scex Urban park
Sion Vissigen River side 1 1
St. Gallen Bildweiher Urban park 1 1
St. Gallen Turnhalle Hodlerstrasse Urban park
Winterthur Heiligberg Urban park 3 1 1 1
Winterthur Lindengut Urban park
Winterthur Rychenbergpark Urban park
Zürich Chüeweid, site B-1 Urban park
Zürich Chüeweid, site B-2 Urban park
Zürich Chüeweid, site B-3 Urban park
Zürich Friedhof Sihlfeld, sector C Cemetery
Zürich Friedhof Sihlfeld, sector E Cemetery 2 2
Zürich Limmatufer River side
Zürich Rieterpark Urban park
Zürich Schärrenwiese, site C-1 Urban park
Zürich Schärrenwiese, site C-2 Urban park
Zürich Schärrenwiese, site C-3 Urban park
Zürich Staudenweg Suburban forest 5 3 1 1
Zürich Waldrand Waid, Chäferberg Suburban forest 47 1 38 6 2
Zürich Waidberg Wald Suburban forest 143 60 74 7 2
Zürich Witikon Suburban forest 17 1 15 1
  1. aCollection was done in June 2016 at all collection sites except for Waldrand Waid, Chäferberg and Waidberg Wald