45 ticks (n = 9) significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358) were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub-) urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite."/>
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Table 6 Pathogen prevalence in I. ricinus ticks collected at 9 urban or suburban collection sites

From: Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

Collection sites Prevalence (%)
City Name Description n b TBEV B.b.(s.l.)a B.m. R.spp.a A.p. B.v. N.m.a
Basel Friedhof Hörnli Cemetery 245 (246) 0 17.1 3.3 15.0 1.2 2.0 9.8
Basel Margrethenpark Urban park 83 0 7.2 1.2 24.1 0 1.2 0
Bern Allmend Urban park 123 0 35.8 1.6 10.6 3.3 0 9.8
Geneva Bois des frères Suburban forest 134 (135) 0 18.5 3.0 5.9 2.2 0 3.0
Lausanne Parc de l’Hermitage Urban park 102 (103) 0 9.7 1.9 6.7 1.0 0 3.9
Neuchâtel Jardin du Prince Urban forest 48 (49) 0 10.2 8.2 4.1 0 0 10.2
Neuchâtel Les Cadolles Suburban forest 115 0 13.9 3.5 2.6 0.9 0 3.5
Zürich Waldrand Waid, Chäferberg Suburban forest 46 (47) 0 14.9 0 23.4 0 0 10.6
Zürich Waidberg Wald Suburban forest 83 (143) 0 14.5 0.7 24.5 1.2 0 6.0
  1. Abbreviations: TBEV, Tick-borne encephalitis virus; B.a., Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.); B.m., Borrelia miyamotoi; R. spp., Rickettsia spp.; A.p., Anaplasma phagocytophilum; B.ve., Babesia venatorum (EU1); N.m, " Candidatus N. mikurensis"
  2. aPathogens with significantly different carrier rates at the different collection sites
  3. bThe number in parentheses represents the sample size including larvae. Larvae were only included for the calculation of prevalence for pathogens being transmitted transovarially: B. miyamotoi, Rickettsia spp., B. venatorum (EU1)