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Table 1 Summary statistics of the questionnaire and slaughter observations, stratified by case and control farms

From: Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

Farm factors Case (n = 131) Control (n = 63)
Mean herd size ± SD 448.1 ± 266.5 347.2 ± 141.0
Mean number ± SD of animals slaughtered in 2013 107.0 ± 82.5 75.9 ± 28.0
Farm type
 Organic 17 8
 Conventional 114 55
Concurrent beef production
 Yes 21 3
 No 110 60
Breed
 Danish Holstein 94 48
 Cross 18 2
 Other 19 13
Management factors   
Grazing of heifers and access to surface water
 Wet pasture + yes 73 15
 Wet pasture + no 35 13
 Dry pasture + yes 3 5
 Dry pasture + no 7 11
 Not grazed 13 19
Grazing of calves and access to surface water
 Wet pasture + yes 11 3
 Wet pasture + no 17 5
 Dry pasture + yes 4 1
 Dry pasture + no 35 15
 Not grazed 64 39
Grazing of cows   
 Wet pasture 5 1
 Dry pasture 47 21
 Not grazed 79 41
Grazing of dry cows   
 Wet pasture 38 4
 Dry pasture 45 22
 Not grazed 48 37
Period of grazing in 2013 (turn-out in March)
 Before 1st June and > 6 month 67 20
 Before 1st June and ≤ 6 months 11 3
 After 1st June and < 6 months 8 8
 Not grazed 45 32
Any prevention for liver flukes on pasture
 None 82 37
 Move animals in late summer 25 8
 Other 12 2
 Not grazed 12 16
Purchase or grazing of calves with animals from other farms in 2013
 Yes 10 2
 No 121 61
Purchase or grazing of heifers with animals from other farms in 2013
 Yes 25 8
 No 106 55
Purchase of cows in 2013
 Yes 20 6
 No 111 57
  1. Abbreviation: SD standard deviation