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Table 4 Pathogen species or closely related species identified in hard ticks (Ixodidae) collected from birds from 1995 to 2016 in Taiwan

From: Tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from birds in Taiwan

Pathogen species Tick species (no. of detections in different life stages) Avian host of ticks (no. of ticks)
Babesia microti Ixodes granulatus (1L) Emberiza spodocephala c (1)
Order Spirochaetales   
Family Spirochaetaceae
Borrelia valaisiana Ixodes granulatus (1L, 2Na) E. spodocephala c (3)
Borrelia turdi Ixodes turdus (1N, 1A) Turdus chrysolaus c (1); Turdus pallidus c (1)
Order Rickettsiales   
Family Anaplasmataceae
Anaplasma sp. clone BJ01 Haemaphysalis ornithophila (1N) Lophura swinhoii (1)
Ehrlichia sp. BL157-9 Haemaphysalis flava (1N) T. pallidus c (1)
Family Rickettsiaceae
Rickettsia conorii Haemaphysalis ornithophila (1A) Zoothera dauma c (1)
Rickettsia helvetica Ixodes columnae (8Lb) Alcippe morrisonia (1); Ficedula hyperythra (1); Lophura swinhoii (1); Tarsiger indicus (1); T. pallidus c (4)
Rickettsia monacensis Ixodes nipponensis (1N) Phylloscopus fuscatus (1)
  1. Abbreviations: L larva, N nymph, A adult
  2. aThe three Ixodes granulatus were removed from three different Emberiza spodocephala
  3. bThree of the eight Ixodes columnae were removed from the same individual Turdus pallidus
  4. cMigratory species