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Table 4 Relative gene expression in the liver of buffaloes experimentally infected with F. gigantica compared to the control group. The relative quantities were obtained according to the comparative Cq method (2–ΔΔCq). P values indicate statistical significance (P < 0.05)

From: Dynamic expression of cytokine and transcription factor genes during experimental Fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes

Gene Target ANOVA Multiple comparisons
3 dpi 10 dpi 28 dpi 42 dpi 70 dpi 98 dpi
F (DFn, DFd) P RQ P RQ P RQ P RQ P RQ P RQ P
IFN-γ 4.693(6, 21) 0.0035 2.08 0.4326 5.51 0.1282 2.06 0.7358 3.21 0.4590 9.27 0.0079 13.91 0.0003
TGF-β 4.738(6, 19) 0.0041 13.93 0.0003 3.07 0.4884 1.67 0.8036 3.85 0.3408 1.63 0.8371 2.66 0.6062
IL-1β 11.05(6, 26) < 0.0001 1.31 0.9767 1.27 0.9811 14.25 0.0007 0.26 0.8137 2.31 0.8025 28.45 < 0.0001
IL-4 2.877(6, 24) 0.0291 7.01 0.5847 19.4 0.4892 97.21 0.0028 27.9 0.3121 9.43 0.7749 67.14 0.0630
IL-6 7.636(6, 24) 0.0001 5.50 0.8529 2.81 0.9366 78.1 0.0002 1.94 0.9728 23.14 0.2805 94.56 0.0008
IL-10 2.514(6, 26) 0.0471 5.99 0.7003 9.92 0.3184 21.18 0.0694 2.3 0.9579 6.24 0.4902 32.67 0.0036
IL-12B 5.595(6, 26) 0.0008 5.92 0.4786 3.99 0.4746 13.68 0.0759 0.86 0.9825 5.37 0.5312 24.84 < 0.0001
IL-13 6.56(6, 20) 0.0006 2.09 0.8459 7.80 0.1522 11.87 0.0259 5.45 0.3499 10.8 0.0426 27.33 < 0.0001
IL-17A 3.532(6, 21) 0.0142 0.33 0.4612 0.07 0.3694 5.95 0.0114 0.26 0.4327 0.28 0.4400 2.99 0.6354
T-bet 2.173(6, 28) 0.076 2.16 0.7923 0.25 0.7830 4.73 0.1018 3.93 0.4158 3.99 0.4606 11.38 0.0113
GATA-3 3.319(6, 28) 0.0135 0.84 0.8101 1.42 0.9579 5.18 0.0035 4.80 0.0889 1.34 0.9397 1.8 0.6952
Foxp3 1.455(6, 28) 0.2296 0.70 0.9054 1.07 0.9749 3.03 0.0424 3.97 0.3705 3.40 0.4458 3.05 0.1372
ROR-γτ 4.387(6, 28) 0.003 2.25 0.7567 4.57 0.3780 10.28 0.0002 3.24 0.5637 2.68 0.7076 2.55 0.7148
  1. Abbreviations: RQ, relative quantity (mean); F(DFn, DFd), degrees of freedom with numerator and degrees of freedom denominator inside the subscript parentheses