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Table 4 Pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in HIV-infected patients

From: Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia and Isospora infection in HIV-infected people: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

  No. of studies No. of HIV-infected patients No. of patients with Cryptosporidium co-infection Prevalence of Cryptosporidium co-infection (95% CI) (%) Heterogeneity Univariate meta-regression
P-value I2 (%) Coefficient (95% CI) (%) P-value
Region        0.20 (0.01–0.38) 0.039
 Western and central Europe and North America 10 28,283 1042 7.3 (5.4–9.2) < 0.0001 97.0   
 Sub-Saharan Africa 35 5313 1105 21.1 (16.1–26.1) < 0.0001 98.5   
 Asia and the Pacific 45 7529 896 12.6 (10.5–14.7) < 0.0001 94.1   
 Latin America and the Caribbean 10 1272 121 13.0 (7.3–18.7) < 0.0001 94.0   
 Middle East and North Africa 4 702 43 4.7 (0.5–8.8) < 0.0001 88.1   
 Eastern Europe and central Asia 2 119 76 60.1 (24.1–96.1) < 0.0001 94.4   
Income level      < 0.0001   0.12 (-0.12–0.37) 0.328
 Low income 16 2559 460 19.7 (13.3–26.1) < 0.0001 96.6   
 Middle income 76 11,559 1722 14.8 (13.3–16.4) < 0.0001 97.5   
 High income 14 29,100 1101 7.7 (6.0–9.5) < 0.0001 96.2   
Patients with diarrhea      < 0.0001   0.19 (0.05–0.33) 0.009
 Yes 34 4232 625 18.2 (14.6–21.7) < 0.0001 97.3   
 Mixed 66 37,517 2306 11.8 (10.6–13.0) < 0.0001 96.7   
 na 6 1469 352 29.4 (12.4–46.4) < 0.0001 98.7   
Total 106 43,218 3283 14.0 (13.0–15.0) < 0.0001 97.6   
  1. Abbreviations: Yes, patients with diarrhea; Mixed, including patients with or without diarrhea; na, not applicable (parameter not provided)