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Table 5 Pooled prevalence of microsporidia infection in HIV-infected patients

From: Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia and Isospora infection in HIV-infected people: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

  No. of studies No. of HIV-infected patients No. of patients with microsporidia co-infection Prevalence of microsporidia co-infection (95% CI) (%) Heterogeneity Univariate meta-regression
P-value I2 (%) Coefficient (95% CI) (%) P-value
Region        0.16 (0.16–0.47) 0.323
 Western and central Europe and North America 8 8089 277 14.4 (7.8–21.1) < 0.0001 97.6   
 Sub-Saharan Africa 17 3834 425 15.4 (11.1–19.7) < 0.0001 96.9   
 Asia and the Pacific 18 2791 251 11.7 (8.2–15.1) < 0.0001 95.8   
 Latin America and the Caribbean 3 2890 123 5.6 (1.9–9.3) 0.017 75.6   
 Middle East and North Africa 1 356 8 2.2 (0.7–3.8)   
 Eastern Europe and central Asia 1 46 6 13.0 (3.3–22.8)   
Income level        0.42 (0.06–0.79) 0.024
 Low income 9 1011 219 25.2 (13.0–37.4) < 0.0001 97.3   
 Middle income 30 8803 580 8.4 (6.5–10.3) <0.0001 94.5   
 High income 9 8192 291 14.4 (8.1–20.6) < 0.0001 97.4   
Patients with diarrhea        0.44 (0.15–0.73) 0.004
 Yes 17 1807 396 22.2 (14.5–29.9) < 0.0001 96.9   
 Mixed 28 14,573 641 8.3 (6.5–10.1) < 0.0001 96.3   
 na 3 1626 53 3.2 (1.7–4.6) 0.128 51.3   
Total 48 18,006 1090 11.8 (10.1–13.4) < 0.0001 96.7   
  1. Abbreviations: Yes, patients with diarrhea; Mixed, including patients with or without diarrhea; na, not applicable (parameter not provided)