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Table 6 Pooled prevalence of Isospora infection in HIV-infected patients

From: Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia and Isospora infection in HIV-infected people: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

  No. of studies No. of HIV-infected patients No. of patients with Isospora co-infection Prevalence of Isospora co-infection (95% CI) (%) Heterogeneity Univariate meta-regression
P-value I2 (%) Coefficient (95% CI) (%) P-value
Region        0.21 (-0.07–0.49) 0.143
 Western and central Europe and North America 6 97,721 324 0.5 (0.2–0.8) < 0.0001 92.8   
 Sub-Saharan Africa 21 3995 232 6.1 (4.5–7.7) < 0.0001 87.0   
 Asia and the Pacific 24 2848 215 7.1 (5.2–9.0) < 0.0001 83.4   
 Latin America and the Caribbean 5 922 13 1.0 (0.3–1.7) 0.349 10.1   
 Middle East and North Africa 2 436 4 0.8 (0.0–2.0) 0.279 14.7   
Income level        -0.04 (-0.38–0.30) 0.806
 Low income 12 2230 93 3.8 (2.2–5.5) < 0.0001 91.9   
 Middle income 39 5904 366 5.8 (4.7–7.0) < 0.0001 86.9   
 High income 7 97,788 329 0.5 (0.2–0.9) < 0.0001 80.0   
Patients with diarrhea      < 0.0001   -0.43 (-0.72– -0.13) 0.005
 Yes 15 1271 112 8.3 (5.7–10.9) < 0.0001 66.1   
 Mixed 43 104,651 676 2.0 (1.6–2.4) < 0.0001 90.4   
Total 58 105,922 788 2.5 (2.1–2.9) < 0.0001 89.8   
  1. Abbreviations: Yes, patients with diarrhea; Mixed, including patients with or without diarrhea