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Table 1 Summary of key attributes of indigenous African mosquito-borne arboviruses for which some mosquito host data are available

From: Mosquito-borne arboviruses of African origin: review of key viruses and vectors

Virus Acronym Distribution Mosquito host speciesa Known or likely amplifying host Human infection Mortalities Date of first known sustained major geographical jump Likely mode of rapid, large-distance virus dissemination Reference
Bagaza BAGV West and Central Africa, India, Spain Cx. guiarti, Cx. ingrami, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. thallasius, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. univittatus Unknown Yes Partridges and pheasants Unknown Migratory birds? [84, 263]
Banzi BANV Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe Cx. rubinotus Rodents? Yes Unknown Unknown Infected rodents? Overall low likelihood of rapid spread [25, 62, 64, 264]
Bouboui BOUV Central Africa Ae. africanus, An. paludis Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [265, 266]
Dengue DENV1–4 Africa: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cote d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zanzibar; Tropical/sub-tropical Asia-Pacific, north-east Australia; South and Central America Ae. aegypti Originally non-human primates, now humans Yes Humans From Asia-Pacific to Americas in 1960s and Africa in 1980s Infected humans and infected Aedes aegypti [11, 13, 69, 75]
Kedougou KEDV Central African Republic, Senegal Ae. dalzieli, Ae. minutus, Ae. tarsalis Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [265,266,267]
Ntaya NTAV Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, Romania Culex? Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Migratory birds? [82,83,84, 266]
Spondweni SPOV Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gabon, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa Ae. circumluteolus, Ae. cumminsii, Cx. neavei, Cx. univitattus, Eretmapodites silvestris, Mansonia africana, Mansonia uniformis Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [50, 51, 87, 265, 268]
Uganda S UGSV Uganda Ae. longipalpis, Aedes spp. Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [52, 89, 265]
Usutu USUV Africa: Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tunisia, Uganda; Europe: multiple countries Ae. albopictus, Ae. caspius, An. maculipennis, Coquellittidia aurites, Cx. neavei, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. univittatus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Mansonia africana Various bird species (mainly passeriform and strigiform), horses, and possibly also bats Yes Frequent epidemic mortalities in Eurasian blackbirds Turdus merula Africa into Western Europe (Spain) in the 1950s, separate strain Africa into Central Europe in the 1970s Birds via migratory flyways; humans incidental and dead-end hosts [39, 90,91,92,93, 96,97,98, 107, 269,270,271]
Wesselsbron WESV Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Thailand Ae. caballus, Ae. circumluteolus, Ae. juppi, Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. luridus, Ae. unidentatus, Ae. (Neomelaniconian) spp., Cx. univittatus Livestock Yes Sheep None known, quiescent in southern Africa Desiccation-tolerant Aedes eggs [34, 35, 55, 62, 100, 101]
West Nile WNV Lineage 1: North Africa, Europe, India, Australia, North and South America, Caribbean; Lineage 2: South, Central and East Africa, Madagascar, Europe Cx. modestus, Cx. neavei, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus, Cx. theileri Birds Yes Humans, horses, birds, dogs 1999, North America Migratory birds; infected humans [19, 20, 26, 49, 62, 93, 103, 106, 108,109,110, 114, 116, 122, 123, 128, 264]
Yaounde YAOV Cameroon, Ghana Cx. nebulosus Birds Unknown Unknown Unknown Birds? [266, 272]
Yellow fever YFV Africa: Angola, Benin, Burkino Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Uganda; Tropical South America, Caribbean Ae. aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. furcifer/taylori, Ae. leucocelaenus, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. metallicus, Ae. opok, Ae. simpsoni complex, Ae. vittatus, Haemagogus capricorni, Haemagogus equines, Haemagogus janthinomys, Haemagogus leucocelanus, Haemagogus mesodentatus, Haemagogus spegazzinii, Sabethes chloropterus Non-human primates: Africa: Monkeys (Cercopithecus), chimpanzees (Pan spp.), mangabey (Cercocebus spp.), baboons (Papio spp.), bush babies (Galaga spp.), and possibly hedgehogs (Erinaceus spp.); South/Central America: Capuchin (Cebus spp), spider (Ateles spp.), and howler (Alouatta spp.) monkeys and marmosets (Hapale spp.) Yes Humans Africa to Caribbean, slave trade prior to 1650 Ship-borne infected Aedes eggs or adults; air-transport of infected humans and Aedes aegypti [7,8,9,10, 58, 130, 132, 133, 154, 222, 265, 273, 274]
Zika ZIKV East, West and southern Africa, Asia Pacific, South and Central America, moving into southern areas of North America Ae. aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. furcifer, Ae. jamoti, Ae. opok, Ae. flavicollis, Ae. grahami, Ae. taeniorostris, Ae. tarsalis, Ae. vittatus, Ae. dalziella, Ae. fowleri, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. metallicus, Ae. minimus, Ae. neoafricanus, An. gambiae, Eretmapodites inornatus, Eretmapodites quinquevittatus, Mansonia uniformis Several species of African non-human primates Yes Rare in humans From Asia to Yap Island (Federated States of Micronesia) in 2007, then to French Polynesia and other Pacific Islands 2013 and 2014, and finally to Brazil early 2015 Infected Aedes mosquitoes by ship or air; infected humans [1, 21,22,23, 52, 75, 139, 140, 144]
Babanki BBKV Kenya Ae. africanus, Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus, Ae. simpsoni       [93, 265]
Chikungunya CHIKV Africa: Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mozambique, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Reunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe; Middle East; Europe; Asia; the Americas; Oceania Ae. aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. cordellieri, Ae. furcifer, Ae. fulgens, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. neoafricanus, Ae. taylori, Ae. vittatus Non-human primates, humans Yes Humans Previously limited to Africa and Asia, but since 2004 rapid spread to Europe, the Americas and Oceania with major outbreaks Infected people; infected mosquitoes in cargo [14, 17, 62, 75, 151, 152, 155, 156, 158, 159, 275]
Middelburg MIDV South Africa, Zimbabwe Ae. caballus, Mansonia africana Ruminants? Yes Horses Unknown Unknown [35, 101, 160, 162,163,164]
Ndumu NDUV Southern and East Africa Ae. circumluteolus, Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus, Ae. tricholabis, Cx. rubinotus, Mansonia uniformis Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [40, 93, 166]
O’Nyong-Nyong ONNV Central, East and West Africa An. funestus, An. gambiae, Mansonia uniformis Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Infectious humans moving between areas having appropriate vector species [45, 151, 167, 169]
Semliki Forest SFV Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda Ae. abnormalis-group, Ae. argenteopunctatus Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [164, 170, 171]
Sindbis SINV Africa: Cameroon, Egypt, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda; Europe and Middle East: Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, UK; East and Australasia: Australia, China, India, Malaysia, Russian Federation, Philippines Cx. univittatus, Cx. neavei, Cx. pipiens, Cx. torrentium, Culiseta morsitans, Coquillettidia fuscopennata Migratory and other birds Yes Unknown Entered Europe 1960s or 1970s Intra or inter-continental via infected migratory birds; infected humans [62, 93, 106, 110, 115, 172, 175,176,177,178, 264]
Rift Valley fever RVFV Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula Ae. aegypti, Ae. caballus, Ae. cumminsii, Ae. circumluteolus, Ae. dentatus, Ae. juppi, Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus, Ae. pembaensis, An. squamosus, Cx. bitaeniorhyncus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. poicilipes, Cx. theileri, Cx. univittatus, Cx. zombaensis, Eretmapodites quinquevittatus, Mansonia africana, Mansonia uniformis Cattle, sheep, goats Yes Humans, goats, cattle, sheep   Trans-ovarially-infected dessication-resistant Aedes eggs [46, 47, 62, 190,191,192,193,194, 196, 235, 265, 276]
Arumowot AMTV Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Sudan Cx. albiventris, Cx. antennatus, Cx. rubinotus Kurrichane thrush, various mice, gerbils and shrews Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [277, 278]
Batai BATV Uganda “Mosquitoes” Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [41]
Bunyamwera BUNV Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal, Kenya, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda Ae. circumluteolus, Ae. mcintoshi, An. funestus Geese and other water birds Yes Unknown Unknown Infected humans, desiccation-resistant eggs (but trans-ovarial transmission not proven) [33,34,35, 93, 101, 182, 183]
Bwamba BWAV Cameroon, Central African Republic, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda Ae. furcifer, An. coustani, An. funestus, An. gambiae, Mansonia uniformis Unknown Yes Yes Unknown Unknown [28, 31, 32]
Germiston GERV Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe Cx. rubinotus, Cx. theileri? Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [34, 36, 264]
Ilesha ILEV Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda, Madagascar An. gambiae Unknown Yes Humans Unknown Unknown [37, 184, 185, 279]
Lumbo LUMV Mozambique, South Africa Ae. pembaensis Non-human primates? Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [38]
Ngari NRIV Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritania, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. simpsoni, An. funestus Unknown Yes Possibly Unknown Unknown [41, 43, 93, 280]
Nyando NDV Central African Republic, Kenya, Senegal, Uganda An. funestus Unknown Yes   Unknown Unknown [28, 281, 282]
Pongola PGAV Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Uganda Ae. circumluteolus, Ae. mcintoshi Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [28, 93, 268]
Shuni SHUV Nigeria, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Israel Cx. theileri Domestic stock and wild animals? Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [26, 48, 187, 188]
Witwatersrand WITV Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe Cx. rubinotus Birds suspected Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [53, 264]
Kamese KAMV Central African Republic, Uganda Cx. annulioris, Cx. pruina, Cx. tigripes Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [283, 284]
Mossuril MOSV Mozambique, South Africa Culex sp. (sitiens?) Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [285]
  1. aSuspected or known prime vectors in bold