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Table 1 Summary of vegetation and landscape covariates measured at the trap scale by forest type and location, modified from [11]. Covariates are summarized as mean ± standard error. Different superscript letters A, B, C denote significant differences among groups (P < 0.05) detected using analysis of variance (ANOVA), blocking on site, followed up with Tukey’s post-hoc comparisons when there were more than two groups

From: Multiflora rose invasion amplifies prevalence of Lyme disease pathogen, but not necessarily Lyme disease risk

Covariates Uninvaded forests Invaded: in rose Invaded: not in rose
Trap-level covariates
Nudds at 0.5–1.0 m (%) 18.0 ± 3.9A 73.9 ± 4.5B 53.3 ± 5.9C
Rose cover, 12.5 m radius (%) 2.5 ± 0.2A 11.2 ± 0.6B 7.0 ± 0.6C
Leaf litter volume (l/m2) 28.0 ± 2.8A 6.1 ± 1.4B 6.7 ± 1.2B
Coarse woody debris (%) 6.5 ± 0.9A 3.4 ± 0.7B 4.2 ± 0.7B
Rose cover, 2.5 m radius (%) 0.0 ± 0.0A 67.1 ± 2.2B 3.5 ± 0.7A
Distance to agriculture (m) 288.3 ± 54.7A 156.7 ± 24.6B 159.6 ± 24.6B
Distance to edge (m) 67.8 ± 9.1A 39.8 ± 8.8B 41.9 ± 8.4B
Distance to road (m) 154.7 ± 16.7 135 ± 18.1 133.4 ± 15.4
Distance to residential (m) 716.9 ± 377.6 186.2 ± 31.5 174.4 ± 32.9
Distance to stream (m) 371.8 ± 62.7A 148.4 ± 35.7B 134.1 ± 35.6B
Tick abundancea 0.8 ± 0.1A 0.4 ± 0.1B 0.2 ± 0.0B
Mouse abundanceb 2.7 ± 0.5 4.5 ± 0.9 2.1 ± 0.4
Mean larvae per mouseb 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2
  1. aTick abundance values from traps that caught ticks which could be screened for pathogens [11]
  2. bMouse abundance and larval burdens on mice from concurrent nest box study (Adalsteinsson et al., unpublished data). For trap-level estimates, we calculated the mean of the mice caught during fall at two nest boxes in closest proximity to the tick trap. Larval burdens are the average number of larvae per mice at either the two closest nest boxes
  3. “Nudds” refers to Nudds board (Nudds [29]) measurements and “dbh” stands for diameter at breast height