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Table 2 Summary of vegetation and landscape covariates measured at the patch scale by forest type (invaded or uninvaded), modified from [11]. Covariates are summarized as mean ± standard error. Superscript letters A, B denote significant differences among groups (P < 0.05) detected using analysis of variance (ANOVA), blocking on site

From: Multiflora rose invasion amplifies prevalence of Lyme disease pathogen, but not necessarily Lyme disease risk

Covariates Uninvaded forests Invaded forests
Patch-level covariates
Rose cover (%) 0.8 ± 0.5A 36.9 ± 7.7B
Total understory cover (%) 19.6 ± 4.4A 41.6 ± 6.1B
Leaf litter volume (l/m2) 13.9 ± 1.1A 6.8 ± 0.9B
Fagus grandifolia (%) 8.5 ± 2.8A 0.7 ± 0.2B
Acer spp. (%) 0.7 ± 0.1A 21.2 ± 1.2B
Year of canopy closure 1916.7 ± 4.9A 1963 ± 5.1B
Non-native stems (%) 9.1 ± 2.7A 40.0 ± 3.3B
Average tree dbh (m) 0.6 ± 0.0 0.6 ± 0.0
Quercus spp. (%) 42.0 ± 6.4A 11.0 ± 5.8B
Mean mice per nest boxa 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2
Mean larvae per mousea 0.7 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.3
Bird territory densityb 3.6 ± 0.5 5.3 ± 0.8
  1. aMouse abundance and larval burdens on mice from concurrent nest box study (Adalsteinsson et al., unpublished data). Total mouse captures and larvae on mice during fall were averaged across all 15 nest boxes in the site
  2. bSpot mapping data for all ground-foraging bird species, collected during 2010 and 2011 breeding seasons [28]
  3. “dbh” stands for diameter at breast height