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Table 4 Potential risk and preventive factors guiding reinfection with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in 2012 from multivariable logistic regression modelling

From: Effect of an integrated intervention package of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation and health education on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections in Côte d’Ivoire

Explanatory factor All communities (n = 810) Control group (n = 385) Intervention group (n = 425)
Crude OR Adjusted OR Crude OR Adjusted OR Crude OR Adjusted OR
(95% CI) (95% CI)a (95% CI) (95% CI)a (95% CI) (95% CI)a
Soil-transmitted helminth infection  
Sociodemographic indicators  
 Sex (male) 2.35 (1.40–3.93)** 2.63 (1.55–4.44)** 4.79 (1.76–13.02)** 5.90 (2.11–16.50)** 1.67 (0.90–3.11) 1.72 (0.91–3.24)
 Age group (6–15 years) 2.22 (1.07–4.63)* 2.46 (1.18–5.14)* 1.84 (0.36–9.40) 2.14 (0.41–11.09) 2.69 (1.17–6.15)* 3.00 (1.30–6.94)*
 Age group (16–29 years) 2.33 (1.00–5.41)* 3.08 (1.30–7.28)* 6.33 (1.20–33.41)* 9.03 (1.63–50.07)* 1.53 (0.55–4.22) 1.79 (0.64–4.98)
 Age group (30–45 years) 1.70 (0.76–3.81) 1.95 (0.87–4.40) 4.15 (0.86–19.98) 5.66 (1.15–28.00)* 1.05 (0.37–2.98) 1.18 (0.42–3.36)
 Age group (> 45 years) 1.27 (0.47–3.42) 1.39 (0.51–3.76) 4.24 (0.73–24.52) 4.29 (0.72–25.51) 0.63 (0.16–2.46) 0.71 (0.18–2.75)
 Socioeconomic index (score) 0.84 (0.71–0.98)* 0.80 (0.68–0.94)** 0.83 (0.65–1.07) 0.82 (0.66–1.02) 0.80 (0.63–1.01) 0.77 (0.62–0.95)*
 Ethnic origin (autochthonous)b 1.34 (0.62–2.94) 1.76 (0.79–3.95) 2.68 (0.67–10.76) 1.92 (0.65–5.64) 0.92 (0.35–2.39) 1.29 (0.51–3.28)
 Religion (Muslim) 0.69 (0.29–1.63) 0.61 (0.29–1.28) 0.44 (0.16–1.24) 0.50 (0.17–1.52) 1.06 (0.33–3.36) 0.84 (0.27–2.65)
 Religion (animist) 1.31 (0.76–2.25) 1.42 (0.84–2.41) 1.31 (0.52–3.33) 0.86 (0.31–2.36) 1.32 (0.69–2.52) 1.54 (0.81–2.92)
 Religion (other) 0.38 (0.05–3.09) 0.33 (0.04–2.51) 0.31 (0.04–2.52) 0.33 (0.04–2.78) na na
WASH/intervention indicatorsc
 Group (intervention) 1.62 (0.72–3.65) 1.55 (0.93–2.59) na na na na
 ODF status (odf) 1.47 (0.64–3.37) 1.48 (0.90–2.42) na na na na
 Toilet ownership (new owner) 1.62 (0.77–3.40) 1.53 (0.88–2.68) 0.81 (0.10–6.61) 1.04 (0.12–9.26) 1.88 (0.48–7.31) 1.37 (0.35–5.34)
 Toilet ownership (still owner) 0.79 (0.33–1.85) 1.12 (0.48–2.65) 0.87 (0.34–2.18) 1.20 (0.45–3.19) 0.46 (0.04–4.92) 0.48 (0.04–5.38)
 Possession of functional latrine in 2012 1.25 (0.66–2.36) 1.52 (0.88–2.61) 0.93 (0.39–2.23) 1.23 (0.49–3.09) 1.55 (0.42–5.80) 1.26 (0.35–4.52)
 Toilet use in 2012 1.04 (0.52–2.09) 1.44 (0.82–2.56) 0.59 (0.24–1.47) 0.87 (0.36–2.12) na na
 Strict toilet use in 2012 1.25 (0.70–2.22) 1.40 (0.84–2.34) 0.72 (0.29–1.82) 0.89 (0.34–2.35) 1.82 (0.68–4.85) 1.20 (0.43–3.30)
Intestinal protozoa infection
Sociodemographic indicators
 Sex (male) 0.78 (0.58–1.05) 0.80 (0.60–1.08) 0.67 (0.43–1.04) 0.69 (0.44–1.08) 0.90 (0.61–1.34) 0.94 (0.63–1.41)
 Age group (6–15 years) 1.06 (0.71–1.58) 1.10 (0.74–1.65) 0.95 (0.52–1.74) 0.97 (0.52–1.79) 1.09 (0.64–1.85) 1.16 (0.67–2.00)
 Age group (16–29 years) 1.23 (0.74–2.05) 1.22 (0.73–2.03) 0.73 (0.33–1.61) 0.68 (0.30–1.52) 1.73 (0.90–3.34) 1.81 (0.93–3.53)
 Age group (30–45 years) 1.58 (1.00–2.49) 1.58 (0.99–2.51) 1.42 (0.71–2.85) 1.35 (0.67–2.73) 1.61 (0.87–2.97) 1.65 (0.89–3.06)
 Age group (> 45 years) 1.12 (0.67–1.88) 1.14 (0.68–1.92) 0.81 (0.36–1.81) 0.81 (0.36–1.85) 1.36 (0.70–2.63) 1.41 (0.72–2.76)
 Socioeconomic index (score) 1.00 (0.92–1.08) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 0.96 (0.87–1.04) 1.00 (0.91–1.11) 1.04 (0.91–1.18) 1.04 (0.91–1.18)
 Origin (autochthonous)b 1.51 (1.03–2.22)* 1.54 (1.04–2.28)* 1.50 (0.96–2.34) 1.50 (0.91–2.48) 1.63 (0.93–2.88) 1.70 (0.96–3.04)
 Religion (Muslim) 0.62 (0.40–0.97)* 0.61 (0.39–0.96)* 0.61 (0.36–1.04) 0.63 (0.35–1.11) 0.48 (0.25–0.94)* 0.46 (0.23–0.91)*
 Religion (animist) 1.01 (0.70–1.45) 1.01 (0.70–1.46) 0.73 (0.39–1.35) 0.74 (0.39–1.41) 1.17 (0.76–1.81) 1.20 (0.77–1.86)
 Religion (other) 1.43 (0.57–3.60) 1.45 (0.58–3.67) 1.27 (0.50–3.21) 1.35 (0.53–3.44) na na
WASH/intervention indicatorsc
 Group (intervention) 0.74 (0.55–0.99)* 0.68 (0.49–0.93)* na na na na
 ODF status (odf) 0.73 (0.55–0.98)* 0.69 (0.50–0.93)* na na na na
 Toilet ownership (new owner) 0.65 (0.47–0.91)* 0.63 (0.44–0.88)** 0.69 (0.25–1.95) 0.79 (0.27–2.31) 0.80 (0.35–1.81) 0.76 (0.33–1.77)
 Toilet ownership (still owner) 0.87 (0.55–1.37) 0.88 (0.54–1.42) 0.79 (0.49–1.28) 0.84 (0.50–1.42) 1.78 (0.46–6.91) 1.58 (0.39–6.33)
 Toilet ownership (no longer owner) 0.58 (0.16–2.12) 0.61 (0.17–2.25) 0.57 (0.16–2.08) 0.61 (0.17–2.27) na na
 Possession of functional latrine in 2012 0.72 (0.52–0.98)* 0.69 (0.50–0.95)* 0.79 (0.50–1.25) 0.85 (0.52–1.38) 0.82 (0.36–1.87) 0.78 (0.33–1.81)
 Toilet use in 2012 0.67 (0.48–0.94)* 0.67 (0.47–0.94)* 0.79 (0.51–1.23) 0.86 (0.54–1.38) 0.19 (0.02–1.54) 0.21 (0.03–1.67)
 Strict toilet use in 2012 0.73 (0.54–0.99)* 0.73 (0.53–0.99)* 0.81 (0.51–1.29) 0.87 (0.53–1.43) 0.79 (0.45–1.37) 0.79 (0.44–1.43)
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, na not applicable
  2. aAll indicators are adjusted for sex, age group, socioeconomic index, and ethnic origin
  3. bEthnic origin and religion are closely associated therefore ethnic origin only was used for adjustment
  4. cThe different water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)/intervention indicators are closely related with each other therefore separate models adjusting each for sociodemographic indicators and including a random effect coefficient on community level were applied
  5. *Statistically significant with a P-value < 0.05
  6. **Statistically significant with a P-value < 0.01
  7. Reference categories for explanatories: sex = female, age group = 0–5 years, ethnic origin = allochthonous (all other ethnic groups than the local Baoulé group), religion = Christian, group = control, open defecation free (ODF) status = not odf, toilet ownership = never owner of any latrine in 2011 and 2012, possession of functional latrine in 2012 = no functional latrine in 2012, toilet use in 2012 = household head never used any latrine/toilet in 2012, strict toilet use in 2012 = household head never or irregularly used latrine/toilet for defecation in 2012