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Table 5 Comparison of changes in defecation and hygiene behaviour as reported from the household-based questionnaire (n = 350) between control and intervention communities

From: Effect of an integrated intervention package of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation and health education on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections in Côte d’Ivoire

Behaviour Group Proportion (%) in 2011 OR (95% CI) P-value Proportion (%) in 2012 OR (95% CI) P-value Change between 2011 and 2012 (McNemar’s test)
OR (95% CI) P-value
Open defecation (OD) Control 92.31 1   81.32 1   0.31 (0.13–0.67) 0.002
  Intervention 95.83 1.92 (0.75–4.87) 0.172 44.64 0.19 (0.12–0.30) <  0.001 0.04 (0.01–0.12) <  0.001
Place for OD
 Bushes (close to community) Control 69.23 1   64.84 1   0.71 (0.38–1.31) 0.312
Intervention 75.00 1.33 (0.83–2.13) 0.230 16.67 0.11 (0.07–0.18) <  0.001 0.10 (0.05–0.19) <  0.001
 Plantation Control 65.93 1   71.43 1   1.27 (0.81–2.01) 0.326
Intervention 48.81 0.49 (0.32–0.76) 0.001 41.07 0.28 (0.18–0.44) <  0.001 0.73 (0.46–1.15) 0.193
 Close to river/pond Control 4.40 1   0.00 1   0.20 (0.04–1.79) 0.219
Intervention 2.98 0.67 (0.21–2.08) 0.486 0.60 na na na na
 Behind the house Control 2.75 1   3.30 1   1.25 (0.27–6.30) 1.000
Intervention 1.19 0.43 (0.82–2.23) 0.312 0.60 0.18 (0.02–1.47) 0.109 0.50 (0.01–9.60) 1.000
Toilet usea Control 46.70 1   40.11 1   0.43 (0.17–0.98) 0.043
Intervention 15.48 0.21 (0.13–0.35) < 0.001 94.64 26.38 (12.66–54.96) <  0.001 134.00 (23.64–5331.72) <  0.001
Strict toilet useb Control 26.92 1   29.67 1   1.28 (0.66–2.51) 0.533
Intervention 12.50 0.39 (0.22–0.68) 0.001 79.17 9.01 (5.52–14.70) <  0.001 17.00 (8.00–43.20) <  0.001
Spontaneously mentioned to wash hands after defecation Control 29.67 1   25.82 1   0.83 (0.50–1.34) 0.483
Intervention 14.88 0.41 (0.24–0.71) 0.001 41.07 2.00 (0.25–3.15) 0.003 3.93 (2.20–7.47) <  0.001
Place of defecation of households’ childrenc
 Toilet/latrine Control 26.95 1   26.95 1   1.00 (0.49–2.04) 1.000
Intervention 8.92 0.27 (0.14–0.51) < 0.001 81.35 11.97 (7.05–20.30) <  0.001 58.00 (15.70–484.61) <  0.001
 Bushes (close to community) Control 62.28 1   64.07 1   1.19 (0.58–2.47) 0.736
Intervention 78.34 2.19 (1.34–3.58) 0.002 4.52 0.03 (0.01–0.06) <  0.001 0.17 (0.00–0.06) <  0.001
 Behind the house Control 13.77 1   14.37 1   1.05 (0.54–2.04) 1.000
Intervention 1.91 0.12 (0.04–0.42) 0.001 0.00 na na 0.00 (0.00–2.42) 0.250
 Potty Control 11.38 1   47.31 1   11.00 (4.79–31.05) <  0.001
Intervention 19.75 1.92 (1.03–3.56) 0.039 65.97 2.16 0.001 9.34 (4.52–22.51) <  0.001
 On the field/plantation Control 5.99 1   7.19 1   1.22 (0.46–3.34) 0.824
Intervention 5.73 0.96 (0.38–2.42) 0.922 0.00 na na 0.00 (0.00–0.51) 0.003
 Close to river/pond Control 0.00 1   18.56 1   na na
Intervention 0.00 na na 20.13 1.11 (0.64–1.92) 0.722 na na
  1. aToilet use defined as use of a latrine/toilet (private or shared) of any frequency and unconditional of other places used for defecation
  2. bStrict toilet use defined as use of a latrine/toilet (private or shared) of a minimum frequency of 2 (includes “regularly”, “often” and “always”) combined with no open defecation except for defecation in the plantation far away from the community
  3. cOnly for households with children (n = 324)