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Table 1 Target pathogens, molecular method, target genes and primers used in this study

From: Ticks are more suitable than red foxes for monitoring zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in northeastern Italy

Target Method Gene Primer Amplicon size (bp) Reference
B. burgdorferi (s.l.) Traditional PCR Flagellin FLA1; FLA2 482 [51]
Candidatus N. mikurensis” Traditional PCR groEL NM-350s (5'-GTG TAA TGA CAA AGT TGG TGA TGG-3'); NM-1152as 802 This study; [52]
A. phagocytophilum SYBR green rPCR msp2 msp2-3f ; msp2-3r 334 [53]
Rickettsia spp. SYBR green rPCR OmpB rompB OFm; rompB ORm 489 [54]
Babesia spp. SYBR green rPCR 18S rRNA BJ1; BN2 411–452 [55]
DNA extraction control Traditional PCR 18S rRNA 18SU; 18SD 488 [37]
TBE virus TaqMan rRT-PCR 3' non-coding region F-TBE 1; R-TBE 1 TBE-Probe-WT 67 [38]
RNA extraction control TaqMan rRT-PCR 16S rRNA F-16sIxodes; R-16sIxodes; 16s-Ixodes-Probe 97 [38]