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Table 2 Species and infection rates (%) of pathogens found in 2248 Ixodes ricinus nymphs and adults collected from 2011 to 2016, and sites positive for each pathogen by year of collection

From: Ticks are more suitable than red foxes for monitoring zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in northeastern Italy

Species No. of infected ticks % 95% CI Positive sites (n = total sites monitored)
2011 (n = 5) 2012 (n = 13) 2013 (n = 14) 2014 (n = 14) 2015 (n = 12) 2016 (n = 8)
Rickettsia spp. 91 4.05 3.23–4.86 2 7 6 6 4 5
Rickettsia helvetica 83 3.69 2.91–4.47 2 6 6 4 4 5
Anaplasma phagocytophilum 74 3.29 2.55–4.03 2 4 4 5 4 1
Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) 70 3.11 2.40–3.83 4 3 5 1 7 5
Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis” 39 1.73 1.20–2.27 4 3 3 4 3
Borrelia afzelii 34 1.51 1.01–2.02 2 3 5 6 4
Borrelia burgdorferi (s.s.) 28 1.25 0.79–1.70 3 1
Rickettsia monacensis 11 0.49 0.20–0.78 1 3 3 1
Borrelia garinii 4 0.18 0.004–0.352 1 2
Borrelia valaisiana 4 0.18 0.004–0.352 1 1 2
Babesia venatorum 1 0.04 0.000–0.132 1