Skip to main content

Table 1 Canine surveys comparing prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis (Di) infection by detection of antigen (Ag) using commercial assays without pre-treatment of samples and detection of microfilaria (MF) by microscopy or PCR

From: Prime detection of Dirofilaria immitis: understanding the influence of blocked antigen on heartworm test performance

Country Di Ag + (%) Di MF by microscopy (%) Di MF by PCR (%) Other MF detected (%) Reference
Italy 65/630 (10.3) 79/630 (12.5) NR 12/630 (0.8)a; 76/630 (9.2)b [13]
Portugal 65/696 (9.4) 84/696 (12.1) 40/41 (97.6) 3/696 (0.4)b [14]
Portugal 78/304 (25.7) 61/304 (20.1) NR NR [15]
Romania 16/194 (8.2) 11/194 (5.7) 11/24 (45.8) 12/194 (6.2)c [16]
Australia 48/404 (11.9) 23/404 (5.7) NR 15/404 (3.7)a [24]
Brazil 8/611 (1.3) 6/611 (1.0) NR 42/611 (6.9)a [25]
USA 45/616 (7.3) 26/616 (4.2) NR 6/616 (1.0)a [31]
Costa Rica 16/146 (11.0) 17/146 (11.6) 17/33 (51.5) 16/146 (11.0)a [48]
Greece 28/750 (3.7) 19/750 (2.5) NR 10/750 (1.3)a; 17/750 (2.3)c [54]
USA 31–34/110 (28.2–30.9) 18/110 (16.4) NR 1/110 (0.9)a [55]
USA (Tennessee) 93/673 (13.8) 213/3608 (5.9) NR NR [56]
South Korea 36/127 (28.3) 13/127 (10.2) NR NR [57]
Dominican Republic 18/104 (17.3) 14/104 (13.5) NR NR [58]
Haiti 55/210 (26.2) NR 46/207 (22.2) 3/207 (1.4)a [59]
  1. aMicrofilaria of Acanthocheilonema reconditum detected
  2. bMicrofilaria of Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides detected
  3. cMicrofilaria of Dirofilaria repens detected
  4. Abbreviation: NR, not reported.