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Table 2 Present and potential measuresa to control TBDs. This table is modified from Eisen & Gray [241]. There is not a single method that effectively controls all TBDs. National and local strategies, which combine several methods probably work best [191, 192]. Anti-tick vaccines blocking pathogen transmission in humans and domestic animals might encompass the silver bullet to control TBDs. Hygiene measuresb involve checking for tick bites, prompt removal, and most importantly, seek medical advice when developing symptoms (e.g. fever, skin rash) or illness in weeks to months after a tick bite

From: Control of Lyme borreliosis and other Ixodes ricinus-borne diseases

Personal Domestic animal Residential Vegetation Fauna Medical
Avoid tick habitats Avoid tick habitats Xeriscaping/ Hardscaping Awareness for visitors   Increase awareness and knowledge of medical doctors
Protective clothing Treatments with topical or systematic acaricides Keep grass short, remove weeds, remove leaf litter and brush Reduce tick abundance on sites with high recreational activities Deer fencing Technical improvement of laboratory tests
Repellents Hygiene measuresb Remove harborages/food for rodents and insectivores Avoidance tick habitats/ directing visitor flows Deer removal Improvement of diagnostic/clinical pathways
Acaricide-impregnated clothing   Fencing to exclude wildlife Mowing/extensive grazing of paths and recreational sites Topical acaricide for propagation hosts (deer) Improve cure and care of patients with late LB and persisting complaints
Hygiene measuresb   Move play/rest structures to low risk areas Create open habitats rather than woodlands Sheep mopping Prophylactic antibiotic treatment after a tick bite
Control ticks on dogs/ cats and in gardens   Chemical/fungal acaricides   Topical acaricide/antibiotics for rodents  
sTBE vaccine TBE vaccine    Oral LB vaccine for rodentsa  
LB vaccinea LB vaccine    Oral tick growth regulator/acaricidea  
Tick vaccinea Tick vaccinea    Tick vaccinea