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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Comparative effectiveness of malaria prevention measures: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Reference Study area, year of trial Study design Study population Diagnosis I1 Malaria incidence/person months I2 Malaria incidence/ person months I3 Malaria incidence/ person months I4 Malaria incidence/ person months
Beach et al., 1993 [35] Kenya, 1990 Quasi-experimental- with control group Children < 6 years in 6 villages Microscopy ITNb 82/195 NIb 136/193 ITC 170/224
Charlwood et al., 2001 [36] Eastern Sudan, 1997 Cluster RCT All ages PCR and microscopy IRS 46/418 NI 38/451
Cisse et al., 2006 [37] Sahel and sub-Sahel region, 2002–03 RCT Children 2–59 months Microscopy PD 39/1315 NI 222/1321
Dicko et al., 2011 [38] Mali, 2008 RCT Children 3–59 months Microscopy PD 149/4346 NI 832/4148
Fraser-Hurt, 1999 [39] Tanzania, 1996 RCT Children 5–24 months Microscopy ITN 173/360 NI 234/360
Hale, 2003 [40] Ghana, 1998 RCT Adults Microscopy PD 6/131 NI 86/117
Hamel, 2011 [41] Kenya, 2000 Quasi-experimental-control group All ages > 6 months RDT IRS+ITN 114/7424 ITN 251/6840
Hill et al., 2014 [62] Yunnan, China, 2007 RCT All ages Microscopy and RDT ITN 12/10,854 NI 73/10,857
Kamol-Ratanakul et al., 1992 [53] Thailand, 1987–88 RCT Adults Microscopy ITN 28/1026 UN 51/1099
Konate et al., 2011 [42] Ghana, 2004 RCT Children < 6 years Microscopy ITN 332/4564 NI 982/3504
Kroeger et al., 1995 [63] South America, 1991–94 Quasi-experimental-control group All ages Microscopy and RDT ITN 899/38,260 NI 1617/40,668
Kweku et al., 2008 [43] Ghana, 2005–06 RCT Children 3–59 months Microscopy PD (monthly)b 44/3756 PD (bimonthly) 112/3678 PD (monthly) 109/3372 NIb 183/3900
Luxemburger et al., 1994 [54] Thailand-Burma, 1990–91 RCT School children 4–15 years Microscopy ITN 29/933 UN 52/939
Lwin et al., 2012 [59] Thailand, 2006–08 RCT Adults Microscopy PD 5/2000 NI 69/845
Marbiah et al., 1998 [44] Sierra Leone, 1992–93 Cluster RCT Children 3 months to 6 years Microscopy ITN 48/590 NI 90/559
Mwangi et al., 2003 [45] Kenya, 2000 Quasi-experimental-control group Children < 19 years Microscopy UNb 62/638 UNa 22/42 NIb 58/383
Nankabirwa et al., 2014 [46] Uganda, 2011–12 RCT Children 6–14 years Microscopy PD (monthly)b 3/2886 PD (school term) 81/2857 NIb 83/2912
Nevill et al., 1988 [47] Kenya, NR RCT Children 6–18 years Microscopy UNb 1/130 PDb 8/123 NI 35/123
Odhiambo et al., 2010 [48] Kenya, 2004–08 RCT Infants 5–16 weeks Microscopy PDe 2/334 PD 2/334 NIe 17/325
Pinder et al., 2015 [49] Gambia, 2010–11 Cluster RCT Children 6 months to 14 years Microscopy and RDT IRS 15/886 NI 17/899
Rowland et al., 1996 [55] Pakistan, 1991 Quasi-experimental- control group All ages Microscopy ITN 235/8388 NI 541/8364
Sahu et al., 2003 [57] India, 1999 Cluster RCT All ages Microscopy ITN 3/551 NI 9/565
Sesay et al., 2011 [50] Gambia, 2008 RCT Children < 5 years Microscopy PD 1/2248 NI 3/2279
Sexton et al., 1990 [51] Kenya, 1988 RCT All ages Microscopy ITNe 55/339 ITC 34/323 NIe 75/322
Shah et al., 2013 [61] India, 2006–11 Quasi-experimental- control group All ages Microscopy ITN 124/34,272 NI 45/18,624
Sharma et al., 2009 [58] India, 2006–07 Cluster RCT All ages Microscopy ITNe 16/23,436 UNb 48/24,228 NI 50/12696
Smithuis et al., 2013 [32] Myanmar, 1998 Cluster RCT Children < 10 years Microscopy ITN 351/3989 NI 713/4053
Snow et al., 1988 [52] Gambia, 1986 Cluster RCT Children 1–9 years Microscopy UN 22/435 NI 20/303
Soleimani-Ahmad et al., 2012 [60] Iran, 2009–10 Cluster RCT All ages Microscopy ITN 17/7008 NI 35/7145
Taylor et al., 1999 [56] Indonesia, 1996-97 RCT Adult (non-pregnant) 18–55 years Microscopy PDb 28/467 PD 3/265 NIe 56/142
  1. Abbreviations: I1 intervention 1, I2 intervention 2, I3 intervention 3, I4 intervention 4, MI Malaria infection, ITC insecticide-treated curtain, ITN insecticide-treated net, PD prophylactic drug, NI no intervention, RDT rapid diagnostic test, RCT randomized clinical trial, IRS indoor residual spraying, UN untreated nets
  2. aUntreated net torn
  3. bIncluded arms in network meta-analysis if more than two arms