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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: High proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic Plasmodium vivax infections in a peri-urban area of low transmission in the Brazilian Amazon

Variable CS1 CS2 χ 2 P-value
  n % n %
Total 2010 100.0 2073 100.0   
Demographic
Community
 Ipiranga 439 21.8 487 23.5 34.507 < 0.0001
 Brasileirinho 1185 59.0 1049 50.6   
 Puraquequara 386 19.2 537 25.9   
Gender
 Male 1058 52.6 1080 52.1 0.119 0.731
 Female 952 47.4 993 47.9   
Age group
 < 5 yrs 256 12.7 251 12.1 2.815 0.589
 ≥ 5–11 yrs 361 18.0 349 16.8   
 12–17 yrs 253 12.6 249 12.0   
 18–59 yrs 957 47.7 1017 49.1   
 ≥ 60 yrs 181 9.0 207 10.0   
Occupation
 Office worker and higher education student 318 15.8 296 14.3 45.221 < 0.0001
 Agriculture/fishing 349 17.4 277 13.4   
 Housewife 289 14.4 346 16.7   
 Retired 106 5.3 97 4.7   
 School children 481 23.9 484 23.4   
 Infants and preschool children 312 15.5 300 14.5   
 Unemployed/ other 154 7.7 269 13.0   
More than 2 months in the area
 Yes 1866 93.8 2017 97.8 40.359 < 0.0001
 No 124 6.2 46 2.2   
Recent travel (last month)
 Yes 188 9.4 186 9.0 0.196 0.658
 No 1814 90.6 1883 91.0   
Malaria control
Use of a bednet
 No use 1002 49.9 1297 62.6 317.571 < 0.0001
 < 1 yr 940 46.8 487 23.5   
 1–2 yrs 68 3.4 289 13.9   
IRS past 6 months
 Yes 1140 56.7 759 36.6 165.854 < 0.0001
 No 869 43.3 1313 63.3   
Fly screen
 Yes 376 18.8 408 19.7 0.565 0.452
 No 1627 81.2 1663 80.3   
Malaria morbidity
Previous episodes
 0 587 29.3 606 29.3   
 1–3 656 32.8 614 29.6 6.479 0.091
 4–10 455 22.7 487 23.5   
 > 10 303 15.1 359 17.3   
Episode in past two weeks
 Yes 24 1.2 21 1.0 0.307 0.580
 No 1986 98.8 2052 99.0   
Current symptoms
 Fevera 108 5.4 84 4.1 3.974 0.046
 Symptoms other than feverb 76 3.8 16 0.8 42.857 < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: CS1, cross-sectional survey 1; CS2, cross-sectional survey 2
  2. a> 37.5 °C at visit or past 48 h
  3. bExcluding individuals with other symptoms and fever