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Table 2 Regulators and their action in Plasmodium cell cycles

From: Checks and balances? DNA replication and the cell cycle in Plasmodium

Regulator Stage of life-cyclea Cell cycle action Gene ID Reference
Cyclin Cyc1 Erythrocytic stages (Pf) (peak expression in trophozoite) Binds PfPK5 (in vitro) and PfMrk1 (in vivo). Role in segmentation PF3D7_1463700; PBANKA_1233200 [44, 46, 113]
  Cyc3 Oocyst formation (Pb) Binds PfPK5 (in vitro) PF3D7_0518400 (putative); PBANKA_1233200 [6]
  Cyc4 Unknown Activates PfCrk-5 in vitro PF3D7_1304700; PBANKA_1403200 (putative) [43]
CDKs PK5 Erythrocytic schizogony (Pf) DNA synthesis PF3D7_1356900; PBANKA_1133200 [40, 45]
  Mrk Erythrocytic schizogony (Pf) (mRNA, however, more abundant in gametocytes than in asexuals) Cytokinesis in erythrocytic schizogony (Pf). Transcriptional regulator? PF3D7_1014400; PBANKA_1212800 [38, 44, 46]
  PK6 Erythrocytic schizogony (trophozoite) Onset of S phase (cyclin independent) PF3D7_1337100; PBANKA_1350900 [47]
Crks Crk-1 Gametocytes (Pf) Erythrocytic schizogony (Pb) Transcriptional regulator PF3D7_0417800; PBANKA_0719900 [114, 115]
  Crk-3 Erythrocytic schizogony (Pf) Transcriptional regulator PF3D7_0415300; PBANKA_0717300 [42]
  Crk-5 Erythrocytic schizogony (Pf) Proliferation - number of merozoites. Activated by Cyc 1 and 4 in vitro. Cyclin independent? PF3D7_0615500; PBANKA_1230200 [43]
Other Kinases CDPK4 Gametogenesis (Pb) Mitotic spindle assembly PF3D7_0717500; PBANKA_0615200 [28]
  CDPK7 Erythrocytic schizogony (Pf) Unknown PF3D7_1123100; PBANKA_0925200 [53]
  Crk-4 Erythrocytic schizogony (trophozoite/schizont) (Pf) S phase PF3D7_0317200; PBANKA_0808000 (putative) [12]
  Nek-1 Erthrocytic schizogony/Gametogenesis (Pb) Mitosis PF3D7_1228300; PBANKA_1443000 (putative) [116]
  Nek-2 Zygote (Pb) Meiosis PF3D7_0525900; PBANKA_1240700 [49, 50]
  Nek-3 Erythrocytic schizogony/Gametogenesis (Pb) Unknown PF3D7_1201600; PBANKA_0600600 (putative) [117]
  Nek-4 Zygote (Pb) Meiosis PF3D7_0719200; PBANKA_0616700 [49, 50]
  Ark1 Erythrocytic schizogony/Gametogenesis (Pb) Mitotic spindle formation/ Cytokinesis PF3D7_0605300; PBANKA_0104100 [52]
  Ark2 Erythrocytic schizogony/Gametogenesis (Pb) Mitotic spindle formation/ Cytokinesis PF3D7_0309200; PBANKA_0407400 [52]
  Ark3 Erythrocytic schizogony/Gametogenesis (Pb) Mitotic spindle formation/ Cytokinesis PF3D7_1356800; PBANKA_1133100 [52]
  1. aInformation has been compiled from studies completed with either Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) or Plasmodium berghei (Pb) as indicated