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Table 1 Giardia spp. in wild rodents as determined by various detection methods for samples from different study sites

From: Occurrence and distribution of Giardia species in wild rodents in Germany

Species Analysis Rodent samples by site (sample size/Giardia detection) Total Giardia detection Prevalence (%)c (95% CI)d
Billerbecka Gothab Krahnbergb Schaderodea Jeeser Saal Kammerforsta Leinawaldb Pahnaer Holzb Phoenix Ost Weissacha,b
Apodemus agrarius IFA   4/2 1/1   17/3   7/1 2/0 2/0 2/1   35 8 22.9 (10.4–40.1)
qPCR   4/2 1/0   17/7   7/5 2/1 2/2 2/1   35 18 51.4 (34.0–68.6)
SSU PCR   4/2 1/1   17/14   7/3 2/0 2/2 2/2   35 24 68.6 (50.7–83.1)
Apodemus flavicollis IFA 6/1 3/0    7/5 1/1 5/1     16/1 38 9 23.7 (11.4–40.2)
qPCR 6/0 3/1    7/5 1/0 5/5     16/1 38 12 31.6 (17.5–48.6)
SSU PCR 6/2 3/1    7/5 1/1 5/1     16/3 38 13 34.2 (19.6–51.3)
Apodemus sylvaticus IFA 4/0   2/2 2/2        1/1 9 5 55.6 (21.2–86.3)
qPCR 4/0   2/0 2/0        1/0 9 0 0 (0–33.6)
SSU PCR 4/0   2/1 2/0        1/1 9 2 22.2 (2.8–60.0)
Microtus agrestis IFA   11/10 13/10   6/5   11/11 10/9 8/7 6/5   65 57 87.7 (77.2–94.5)
qPCR   10/9 8/8   6/6   11/11 10/10 8/8 6/6   59 58 98.3 (90.9–100)
SSU PCR   11/10 8/7   6/4   11/9 10/10 8/7 6/5   60 52 86.7 (75.4–94.1)
Microtus arvalis IFA 1/1 63/55 2/2 9/7 18/16   1/1 1/1    13/13 108 96 88.9 (81.4–94.1)
qPCR 1/1 63/58 2/2 8/7 18/18   1/1 1/1    13/9 107 97 90.7 (83.5–95.4)
SSU PCR 1/1 63/52 2/2 8/7 18/13   1/1 1/1    13/9 107 81 75.7 (66.5–82.5)
Myodes glareolus IFA 74/47 61/49 2/2   73/60 2/2 7/6 10/9   1/1 73/63 303 239 78.9 (73.8–83.3)
qPCR 74/64 61/58 2/2   73/68 2/2 7/7 10/9   1/1 73/63 302 274 90.7 (86.9–93.8)
SSU PCR 74/40 61/47 2/2   72/56 2/2 7/5 10/9   1/1 72/35 301 191 63.5 (57.7–68.9)
  1. aDiscrimination of A. flavicollis and A. sylvaticus by molecular typing was not successful in Billerbeck for four animals (all Giardia-negative by IFA), in Schaderode for three animals (all Giardia positive by IFA), in Kammerforst for three animals (all Giardia-negative by IFA) and in Weissach for one animal (Giardia negative by IFA). These animals were excluded from the analysis in the table
  2. bDiscrimination of Microtus spp. by molecular typing was not successful in Gotha for one animal (Giardia positive by IFA), in Krahnberg for three animals (two Giardia positive by IFA), in Leinawald for two animals (all Giardia positive by IFA), in Pahnaer Holz for one animal (Giardia negative by IFA) and in Weissach for one animal (Giardia positive by IFA). These animals were excluded from the analysis in the table
  3. cHere the term prevalence is used to describe the proportion of Giardia spp. infections in the analyzed animal samples and is not meant to be understood as the ‘real’ prevalence of entire populations
  4. dTest for any difference of Giardia prevalence from rodent category was done using Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, IFA (P ≤ 0.0001), qPCR (P ≤ 0.0001), SSU PCR (P ≤ 0.0001). Comparison between groups was done by using Fisher’s exact test followed by multiple testing correction (Bonferroni-Holm procedure) and P-values are presented in Additional file 2: Table S1