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Table 2 Relative Giardia abundance in rodent samples. Relative Giardia abundance in rodent samples was determined by semi-quantitative IFA and by analysis of ct-values of Giardia positive samples in a Giardia specific qPCR assaya

From: Occurrence and distribution of Giardia species in wild rodents in Germany

Genus Species Ct values (qPCR) Semi-quantitative cyst abundance (IFA)c absolute numbers (%) [95% CI]
   Median (Range)b 95% CI n + ++ +++ n
Apodemus agrarius 33.9 (23.5–38.1) 32.2–35.4 18 8 (100) [63.1–100] 0 (0) [0–36.9] 0 (0) [0–36.9] 8
flavicollis 32.9 (23.9–39.9) 30.7–35.6 12 6 (86) [42.1–99.6] 1 (14) [0.4–57.9] 0 (0) [0–40.0] 7
sylvaticus no ct    5 (100) [47.8–100] 0 (0) [0–52.2] 0 (0) [0–52.2] 5
Totald   33.4 (23.5–39.9) 32.4–34.6 34 22 (96) [78.1–99.8] 1 (4) [0–21.9] 0 (0) [0–14.8] 23
Microtus agrestis 28.1 (22.9–36.3) 27.5–29.1 58 43 (80) [66.5–89.4] 10 (19) [9.3–31.4] 1 (2) [0.1–12.3] 54
arvalis 29.0 (20.9–38.3) 28.4–30.0 97 57 (58) [47.2–67.5] 28 (28) [19.7–38.2] 14 (14) [8.0–22.6] 99
Totald   28.5 (20.9–38.3) 28.4–29.5 163 104 (70) [62.7–77.9] 25 (17) [11.3–24.1] 18 (12) [7.4–18.6] 147
Myodes glareolus 30.7 (22.8–39.9) 30.4–31.2 274 149 (64) [57.7–70.4] 50 (21) [16.4–27.4] 33 (14) [10.0–19.4] 232
  1. Abbreviations: Ct threshold cycle, IFA immunofluorescence assay, n sample size, qPCR real-time PCR, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  2. aOne should note that parasite excretion is often not uniform. However, it is assumed that such effects averaged out by analyzing the means of different groups
  3. bSignificant differences of median-values analyzed by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (H = 53.8, P < 0.0001). Post-hoc test, Dunn’s test of multiple comparisons using rank sums: Ct-values were different between genera (Apodemus vs Microtus P < 0.0001, Apodemus vs Myodes P < 0.0001, Microtus vs Myodes P < 0.0001; mean ranks for Apodemus= 353.9, for Microtus=183.5 and for Myodes=252.6). There were no significant differences within the species of the same genus
  4. cFecal samples were distributed on slides using inoculation loop (~ 10 μl) and analyzed by IFA. Cyst amount of the samples were semi-quantified (1–10 cysts (+), 11–50 cysts (++), > 50 cysts (+++). Comparison of (+) vs (++/+++) between groups was done using Fisher’s exact test followed by multiple testing correction (Bonferroni-Holm procedure): Apodemus vs Microtus (P = 0.019); Apodemus vs Myodes (P = 0.005); Microtus vs Myodes (P = 0.218)
  5. dAnimals for which only genus could be determined were included