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Fig. 1 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 1

From: The missing link in parasite manipulation of host behaviour

Fig. 1

Hypothetical host-parasite system where parasite establishment in the host coincides with Alpha-1 (neurochemical/hormone) upregulation in the central nervous system (CNS) of the host. Arrows demonstrate multiple potential explanations for alpha-1 upregulation. Green arrows: Parasite may directly impact Alpha-1 regulation resulting in adaptive behavioural manipulation, but it may also trigger homeostatic and/or immunological mechanisms of the host. Alpha-1 upregulation could also be a by-product of the real mechanism for manipulation or an immune evasion strategy by the parasite. Orange arrows: Parasite establishment may stimulate immunological defense mechanisms which require the upregulation of Alpha-1, or conversely increased Alpha-1 presence may be a side effect of immunlogical activation from parasite establishment. Red arrows: Parasite establishment may trigger mechanisms involving alpha-1 designed to maintain homeostasis. By extension, Alpha-1 could be primarily involved in inducing sickness behaviours designed to return the host to homeostasis

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