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Table 2 Evaluation of patient characteristics, opportunistic pathogen shedding, and fecal S100A12 concentrations in dogs included in this study (n = 307). P-values in bold font indicate a significant effect (P < 0.05)

From: Effect of selected gastrointestinal parasites and viral agents on fecal S100A12 concentrations in puppies as a potential comparative model

Patient parameter or enteropathogen status n Fecal S100A12 concentration, median (IQR) (ng/g) Fecal S100A12 above RI, n (%) P (univariate analysis) P (multivariate analysis)
Individual pathogensd Individual pathogense Groups of pathogens All entero-pathogens
Fecal score interpretation
 Abnormala 75 118 (24–579) 14 (19) < 0.0001 (Z = 5.749) < 0.0001 (F(1, 251) = 18.832) < 0.0001 (F(1, 250) = 17.897) < 0.0001 (F(1, 268) = 23.418) < 0.0001 (F(1, 267) = 22.690)
 Normal 223 24 (24–56) 6 (3)
Age
 4–6 weeks 142 24 (24–136) 8 (6) 0.5025 (χ2 = 1.377, df = 2) ns ns ns ns
 7–9 weeks 138 24 (24–95) 11 (8)
 ≥10 weeks 27 24 (24–44) 1 (4)
Sex
 Female 152 24 (24–150) 15 (10) 0.1670 (Z = -1.382) 0.5056 (F(1, 234 = 0.445) 0.4730 (F(1, 231) = 0.517) 0.3683 (F(1, 239) = 0.812) 0.4047 (F(1, 243) = 0.697)
 Male 126 24 (24–95) 5 (4)
Breed size
 Small breedb 78 74 (24–633) 16 (21) < 0.0001 (Z = 4.879) 0.0013 (F(1, 52) = 11.562) 0.0012 (F(1, 53) = 11.733) 0.0019 (F(1, 53) = 11.655) 0.0007 (F(1, 52) = 13.127)
 Large breedc 229 24 (24–67) 7 (3)
Toxocara canis
 Shedding 63 24 (24–168) 6 (10) 0.3565 (Z = 0.922) ns ns
 No shedding 238 24 (24–91) 12 (5)
Cystoisospora spp.
 Shedding 117 24 (24–153) 9 (8) 0.0384 (Z = 2.070) 0.2014 (F(1, 96) = 1.655)
 No shedding 184 24 (24–78) 9 (5)
Cystoisospora canis
 Shedding 38 24 (24–223) 2 (5) 0.1668 (Z = 1.382) 0.1288 (F(1, 90) = 2.350)
 No shedding 263 24 (24–86) 16 (6)
Cystoisospora ohioensis
 Shedding 84 24 (24–112) 8 (10) 0.2790 (Z = 1.083) ns
 No shedding 217 24 (24–101) 10 (5)
Giardia spp.
 Shedding 126 24 (24–176) 7 (6) 0.5450 (Z = 0.605) ns ns
 No shedding 179 24 (24–94) 13 (7)
At least 1 parasite
 Shedding 222 24 (24–126) 14 (6) 0.3686 (Z = -0.899) ns
 No shedding 85 24 (24–87) 6 (7)
CCV
 Infected 61 24 (24–38) 5 (8) 0.0345 (Z = -2.115) 0.4505 (F(1, 63) = 0.577) 0.4935 (F(1, 66) = 0.474)
 Not infected 242 24 (24–141) 15 (6)
CPV2
 Infected 54 32 (24–283) 5 (9) 0.0277 (Z = 2.202) 0.8138 (F(1, 77) = 0.056) 0.8870 (F(1, 77) = 0.020)
 Not infected 247 24 (24–90) 15 (6)
At least 1 virus
 Infected 114 24 (24–120) 10 (9) 0.9090 (Z = 0.114) ns
 Not infected 188 24 (24–127) 10 (5)
At least 1 enteropathogen
 Shedding/infected 237 24 (24–138) 19 (8) 0.0881 (Z = -1.705) 0.2398 (F(1, 86) = 1.401)
 No shedding/not infected 70 24 (24–60) 1 (1)
  1. Abbreviations: RI reference interval, ns not significant
  2. aLarge breed puppies: ≤ 5, small breed puppies: ≤ 6 (4−5 weeks old) or ≤ 7 (≥ 6 weeks old) [25]
  3. bAverage adult weight: ≤ 25 kg [24]
  4. cAverage adult weight: > 25 kg [24]
  5. dAll Cystoisospora spp. grouped together
  6. eC. canis and C. ohioensis considered separately