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Table 1 A summary of patterns and hypotheses to explain the regional variation of tick-borne disease cases in eastern and western Norway. All numbers are means for the entire data period (see other tables for detail). Densities are relative to total land area (in km2 for 2012)

From: Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence, and disease incidence in two contrasting regions at the northern distribution range of Europe

Patterns/mechanisms Eastern Norway Pattern/conclusion Western Norway Z or t P
Cases (sum 2006–2015)
 Lyme disease 96 < 133 2.09 0.041
 Anaplasmosis sheep 0 < 194   
 Anaplasmosis cattle 0 < 134   
 Babesiosis cattle 3 < 214 2.97 0.004
Population sizes
 Humans 648,071 > 107,542 -4.50 < 0.001
 Sheep (registered ewes) 4324 < 24,728 6.05 < 0.001
 Cattle (outfield grazing) 4963 < 22,697 6.91 < 0.001
Population densities (mean)
 Humans 74.76 > 5.73 4.31 < 0.001
 Sheep 0.49 < 1.32 -3.30 0.002
 Cattle 0.56 < 1.21 -2.88 0.006
Incidence (mean)
 Lyme disease (per 100,000) 1.49 < 12.41 6.12 < 0.001
 Anaplasmosis sheep (per 10,000) 0 < 7.90   
 Anaplasmosis cattle (per 10,000) 0 < 5.83   
 Babesiosis cattle (per 10,000) 0.72 < 9.32 4.38 < 0.001
Nymphal tick abundance (per 20 m2) 1.36 < 5.78 2.08 0.038
Pathogen prevalence in nymphs
B. burgdorferi (s.l.) 11.4% 11.3% -1.364 0.172
A. phagocytophilum 1.0% < 4.5% -5.346 < 0.001