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Table 3 Parameter estimates and test statistics for negative binomial models of incidence of tick-borne diseases in Norway 2006–2015. For Lyme borreliosis, the data include both western and eastern parts of Norway. For the livestock diseases, the analyses only include western Norway due to few livestock-disease cases in the east. Continuous variables were scaled (mean = 0, SD = 1)

From: Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence, and disease incidence in two contrasting regions at the northern distribution range of Europe

Parameter Estimate SE Z P
Lyme borreliosis
 Intercept -10.86 0.85 -12.80 < 0.001
 Distance to coast -1.00 0.34 -2.99 0.003
 Region (‘west’ vs ‘east’) 3.47 1.06 3.27 0.001
 Prop. area > 200 masl -2.15 0.76 -2.83 0.005
 sqrt(prop. area human settlement) -0.55 0.18 -2.97 0.003
 Region (‘west’ vs ‘east’)*(Prop. area > 200 masl) 1.71 0.75 2.29 0.022
Babesiosis cattle
 Intercept -5.09 0.15 -32.89 < 0.001
 Distance to coast -0.35 0.15 -2.29 0.022
 log(spatial deer density+0.001) 0.64 0.19 3.37 0.001
Anaplasmosis cattle
 Intercept -5.33 0.22 -24.59 < 0.001
 Distance to coast -0.29 0.21 -1.38 0.169
 sqrt(prop. area agricultural fields) 0.64 0.24 2.65 0.008
Anaplasmosis sheep
 Intercept -6.25 0.35 -18.02 < 0.001
 Distance to coast -1.93 0.38 -5.07 < 0.001
 Health recordings 0.56 0.25 2.25 0.024
 log(density of outfield grazing sheep) 1.58 0.40 3.98 < 0.001