Skip to main content

Table 4 Univariate analysis of risk factors related to infestations of buffaloes by ticks and lice (individual animal-level) in the municipality of Santarém, Amazon region, Brazil

From: Prevalence and risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestation of buffaloes in an Amazonian ecosystem

Risk factor Ticks Lice
  Positive/total (%) P a OR (95% CI) Positive/total (%) P a OR (95% CI)
Sex   0.908 1.03 (0.56−1.88)   0.260 0.74 (0.43−1.20)
 Male 19/236 (8.0)    49/385 (12.7)   
 Female 30/385 (7.7)    23/236 (9.7)   
Age (months)   < 0.001 b   0.002 d
 1–12 29/153 (18.9)    10/153 (6.5)   
 13–24 10/222 (4.5)    39/222 (17.5)   
 > 24 10/246 (4.0)    23/246 (9.3)   
Type   0.209 1.50 (0.79−2.86)   0.149 1.48 (0.86−2.53)
 Dairy 35/392 (8.9)    21/229 (9.1)   
 Beef 14/229 (6.1)    51/392 (13.0)   
Herd size   0.006 c   0.025 e
 Micro 12/218 (5.5)    17/218 (7.8)   
 Small 37/347 (10.6)    51/347 (14.7)   
 Medium 0/56 (0.0)    4/56 (7.1)   
Farm site   < 0.001 25.81 (3.53−188.50)   < 0.001 5.07 (2.28−11.29)
 Dry land 48/420 (11.5)    65/420 (15.4)   
 Floodplain 1/201 (0.5)    7/201 (3.4)   
Origin   0.102 1.88 (0.87−4.07)   0.020  
 Bought 9/70 (12.8)    14/70 (20.0)   
 Born on farm 40/551 (7.2)    58/551 (10.5)   
Maintained with other animals   0.010 0.46 (0.25−0.84)   0.249 1.38 (0.79–2.40)
 Yes 25/420 (5.9)    53/420 (12.6)   
 No 24/201 (11.9)    19/201 (9.4)   
  1. aCalculated using Chi-square or Fisher's tests
  2. bAge (months): 1–12 vs 13–24 months (OR: 4.96, P = 0.001); 1–12 vs > 24 months (OR: 5.52, P = 0.001); 13−24 vs > 24 months (OR: 1.11, P = 0.814)
  3. cHerd size: micro vs small (OR: 0.49, P = 0.033); micro vs medium (OR: 6.84, P = 0.134); small vs medium (OR: 13.65, P = 0.005)
  4. dAge (months): 1–12 vs 13–24 months (OR: 0.33, P = 0.002); 1–12 vs > 24 months (OR: 0.68, P = 0.321); 13−24 vs > 24 months (OR: 2.07, P = 0.009)
  5. eHerd size: micro vs small (OR: 0.49, P = 0.014); micro vs medium (OR: 1.10, P = 1.000); small vs medium (OR: 2.24, P = 0.146)
  6. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval
  7. Note: Herd size: micro (1−15 animals); small (16−100 animals); medium (101−500 animals)