Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Hemoparasites in 19 Psittaciformes from different habitats and climates of the Indo-Malayan, Australasian and Neotropical regions

From: Can the intake of antiparasitic secondary metabolites explain the low prevalence of hemoparasites among wild Psittaciformes?

  Locality (locality number) Habitata Climateb n Agec Tissued Hemoparasite presence and prevalence Antiparasitic SM in diet?e References
Cacatuidae
 Indo-Malayan
  Philippine cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia Rasa I., Palawan, Philippines (1) M, MF Am 16 pf FTA Yes [140]
Psittacidae
 Australasian
  New Caledonian rainbow lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus deplanchii Ouégoa, New Caledonia (2) Sa Af 2 ad FTA No [141, 142]
1 pf FTA  
Parc des Grandes Fougères, New Caledonia (3) Rf, Sa, PP Af 5 ad FTA  
Motorpool, Nouméa, New Caledonia (4) Su Af 2 ad FTA  
Vallée des Colons, Nouméa, New Caledonia (5) Su Af 2 ad FTA  
  Forbes’ parakeet Cyanoramphus forbesi Mangere I., Chatham Is., New Zealand (6) CS Cfbf 30 ad FTA No [143,144,145]
  Red-fronted parakeet Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae Raoul I., New Zealand (7) EP Cfag 34 ad lys Genus: Plasmodium; lineage: LIN4 (BELL02); identity 100%; prevalence 18% No [143, 146]
Tiritiri Matangi I., New Zealand (8) BF, Gr, NTP Cfb 24 pf lys [111]
Little Barrier I., New Zealand (9) CK Cfb 42 ad lys Genus: Plasmodium; lineage: LIN4 (BELL02); identity 100%; prevalence 5%; lineage: CN73; identity 99.7%; prevalence 5% [102]
  New Caledonian parakeet Cyanoramphus saisseti Parc des Grandes Fougères, New Caledonia (3) Rf, Sa, PP Af 1 pf FTA No [142]
  Horned parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus Parc des Grandes Fougères, New Caledonia (3) Rf, Sa, PP Af 1 ad heart No [142]
Parc Provincial de la Rivière Bleue, New Caledonia (10) Rf, Ma Af 1 pf kidney [142]
  Ouvéa parakeet Eunymphicus uvaeensis Gossana, Ouvéa, New Caledonia (11) Rf, CP Af 6 ad FTA No [142]
1 juv FTA  
 Neotropical
  Blue and yellow macaw Ara ararauna Trinidad, Bolivia (12) PFIS Am 2 ad FTA Yes [147]
Sachojere, Bolivia (13) PFIS Am 1 pf FTA [147]
  Blue-throated macaw Ara glaucogularis Beni, Bolivia (14) PFIS Am 1 ad lys Yes [147]
Trinidad, Bolivia (12) PFIS Am 5 ad FTA [147]
2 pf FTA  
  Blue-crowned conure Thectocercus acuticaudatus Chaco, Argentina (15) DXF Cfa 1 ad lys Yes [148]
4 pf lys  
  White-eyed conure Psittacara leucophtalmus Sachojere, Bolivia (13) PFIS Am 2 pf FTA No [147]
  Brown-throated conure Eupsittula pertinax Isla Margarita, Venezuela (16) CTS Awf 9 ad FTA Yes [149]
  Nanday conure Aratinga nenday Principe Negro, Pantanal, Brazil (17) Gr, Sa, SS, Ri Aw 11 pf FTA Yes [150]
  Burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus El Cóndor, Patagonia, Argentina (18) Mo BSk 32 ad eth Yes [151]
14 ad liver  
Comallo, Patagonia, Argentina (19) PS Csb 5 ad liver [152]
  Austral parakeet Enicognathus ferrugineus Navarino, Chile (20) BFN ET 2 ad FTA Genus: Leucocytozoon; prevalence 100% No [46]
Bariloche, Patagonia, Argentina (21) BFN Csb 3 ad FTA Genus: Leucocytozoon; prevalence 100% [153]
1 pf FTA  
3 ad liver Genus: Leucocytozoon; prevalence 33%  
1 pf liver  
  Blue-winged parrotlet Forpus xanthopterygius Trinidad, Bolivia (12) PFIS Am 9 ad FTA Yes [147]
  Yellow-chevroned parakeet Brotogeris chiriri Trinidad, Bolivia (12) PFIS Am 4 ad FTA Yes [147]
  Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasilensis Ilha Rasa, Guaraqueçaba, Brazil (22) LAF, M Cfa 29 pf FTA Yes [154]
Ilha das Gamelas, Guaraqueçaba, Brazil (23) LAF, M Cfa 4 pf FTA [154]
  Blue-fronted Amazon Amazona aestiva Jujuy, Argentina (24) DXF Cwa 6 ad lys Yes [155]
Chaco, Argentina (15) DXF Cfa 13 ad lys [148]
Pantanal, Brasil (25) Gr, Sa, SS, Ri Aw 17 pf FTA [150]
  1. aHabitats: BF remnants of broadleaf forest, BFN broadleaf forests dominated by Nothofagus spp., CK coastal and kauri (Agathis australis) forests, CS coastal scrub, CP coconut plantations, CTS cactus and thorn scrub, DXF deciduous xerophyte forest, EP endemic pohutukawa (Metrosideros kermadecensis) sub-tropical moist forest, Gr grassland with sparse trees, LAF lowland Atlantic forest, M mangrove, Ma maquis, MF monsoon forest, Mo Monte xerophyte forest, NTP native trees planted under a re-vegetation programme, PFIS palm dominated forest islands surrounded by regularly flooded savannah, PP pine plantations, PS Patagonian steppes, Rf rainforest, Ri riparian forest, Sa savannah, SS scrub savannahs, Su sub-urban
  2. bThe diversity of climates following [143, 156], except where indicated: Af, tropical rainforest; Am, tropical monsoon; Aw, tropical savannah; BSk, arid, steppe, cold; Cfa, temperate, without dry season, hot summer; Cfb, temperate, without dry season, warm summer; Csb, temperate, dry summer, warm summer; Cwa, temperate, dry winter, hot summer; ET, polar, tundra
  3. cAge: age of individuals at the time of sampling; ad, adult; pf, pre-fledgling; juv, juvenile
  4. dTissue: tissue used to obtain DNA; FTA, blood in FTA cards; lys, blood in lysis buffer; eth, blood in ethanol 70%
  5. eFood items known for their secondary metabolites (SM) with antimalarial, trypanocidal or general antiparasitic properties
  6. ffollowing [143] and WorldClim database (http://www.worldclim.org) [145], using diva-gis (http://www.diva-gis.org/)
  7. gfollowing [143] and data from the New Zealand National Climate Database (http://cliflo.niwa.co.nz)
  8. Abbreviation: n, sample size