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Table 2 Changes in cytokine profiles during parasitic infections. A selection of results obtained from selected Plasmodium, helminth and Plasmodium-helminth co-infection studies conducted in Africa and South America

From: Plasmodium and intestinal parasite perturbations of the infected host’s inflammatory responses: a systematic review

Year Country Study population Parasite Cytokines Reference
2016 Indonesia All age groups Helminths Increased in vitro production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Pf after treatment [108]
2015 Gabon Children Schistosoma haematobium Innate or adaptive immune response to Pf with or without Schistosoma co-infection was similar [90]
2015 Kenya Children Polyparasite IL-10 increased with Schistosoma infection but decreased in Schistosoma/filaria co-infections [90]
IL-6 increased with Pf infection but decreased in Pf/hookworm co-infection [109]
IL-6 and TNF-α levels were not affected by Schistosoma infection [109]
2014 Nigeria Children Schistosoma haematobium IL-10 did not change with Schistosoma infection but IFN- γ increased in older children [110]
2014 Brazil All age groups Giardia intestinalis, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongiloides stercoralis TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10 and IL-6 were low but IFN-γ was high in co-infected people [91]
2013 Ghana All age groups Necator americanus and Giardia lamblia Pf exposure increased TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-7 production [155]
2012 Mali Children Schistosoma haematobium Higher Th1 cytokines in Schistosoma/Pf co-infections [88]
2012 Mali All age groups Filaria IL-12 low in filarial-positive, in vitro filarial-positive associated with IFN regulatory factor 1, no IL-12 in response to malaria antigen stimulation [156]
2011 Mali All age groups Filaria Filarial infection with asymptomatic malaria was associated with an increase in IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17A. PBMC stimulation with Pf antigen reduced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17A in the filiarial infection [73]
2011 Senegal All age groups Schistosoma haematobium Higher IL-10 in the co-infected group [157]
2010 Senegal Children Schistosoma haematobium Schizont extract produced IL-10 only in co-infected group [158]
2009 West Kenya Children Schistosoma mansoni Memory T-regulators cells decreased in co-infected children [159]
  1. Pf, Plasmodium falciparum