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Table 1 Investigations for the presence of WNV in sub-Saharan Africa. The order of countries reflects those where WNV has been detected through virus isolation, those where WNV has been detected through serosurveillance and those where WNV has not been detected or no studies have been reported

From: Epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus in sub-Saharan Africa

Country Area (km2)a Population estimate for 2015 (millions)b Reference Observation
Countries where WNV has been detected through virus isolation
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,344,858 71.2 [58] WNV outbreak in an army camp
 Djibouti 23,200 0.9 [82] Detection of WNV in Culex mosquitoes
 Gabon 267,667 1.7 [83] Human case of WNV
 Madagascar 587,041 24.2 [15, 84,85,86] WNV detected in birds, mosquitoes and humans. Serological evidence for WNV in lemurs and horses
 Namibia 824,292 2.4 [87] WNV detected in humans
 Senegal 196,722 15.0 [3, 88] Serological evidence for WNV in humans. Detection of multiple lineages of WNV
 South Africa 1,219,090 53.5 [10, 14, 62] Serological evidence for WNV in humans, detection in mosquitoes, disease in horses; neurological disease in humans
 Uganda 241,038 40.1 [11] Isolation of virus from humans
Countries where WNV has been detected by serology only
 Central African Republic 622,984 4.8 [53] Serological evidence for WNV
 Chad 1,284,000 13.6 [56] High seroprevalence among horses
 Côte d'Ivoire 322,463 21.3 [55] High seroprevalence among horses
 Ethiopia 1,104,300 98.9 [52] Serological evidence of WNV
 Ghana 238,533 26.4 [89] Serological evidence for WNV in humans
 Kenya 580,367 46.7 [50] Serological evidence for WNV in humans
 Mali 1,240,192 16.2 [90] Serological evidence for WNV in humans
 Nigeria 923,768 182 [57, 91] Serological evidence for WNV in humans and horses
 Sierra Leone 71,740 6.3 [92] Serological evidence for WNV in humans
 Sudan 1,861,484 39.6 [52] Serological evidence for WNV in humans
 Tanzania 947,300 52.3 [51] Serological evidence for WNV in humans
 Zambia 752,618 15.5 [93] Serological evidence for WNV in humans
Countries that have not reported the presence of WNV
 Angola 1,246,700 22.8 na
 Benin 112,622 10.9 na
 Botswana 581,730 2.0 na
 Burkina Faso 274,200 17.9 na
 Burundi 27,830 10.8 [54] No evidence for WNV found
 Cameroon 475,440 23.4 [94] No evidence for WNV found
 Congo 342,000 4.7 na
 Eritrea 117,600 6.7 na
 Equatorial Guinea 28,051 0.8 na
 Guinea 245,857 12.3 na
 Guinea-Bissau 36,125 1.8 na
 Lesotho 30,355 2.1 na
 Liberia 111,369 4.5 na
 Malawi 118,484 17.3 na
 Mauritania 1,030,700 4.1 na
 Mozambique 799,380 27.1 na
 Niger 1,267,000 19.3 na
 Rwanda 26,338 12.4 na
 Somalia 637,657 11.1 na
 South Sudan 644,329 12.1 na
 Swaziland 17,364 1.3 na
 The Gambia 11,295 2.0 na
 Togo 56,785 7.2 na
 Zimbabwe 390,757 15.0 na
  1. Abbreviation: na, not applicable (no evidence found)
  2. a[95]
  3. b[96]